RESEARCH Microbial Interactions during Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8034, USA.
Emerging Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6.75). 11/2008; 14(10):1584-91. DOI: 10.3201/eid1410.080119
Source: PubMed


Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus often colonize the nasopharynx. Children are susceptible to bacterial infections during or soon after upper respiratory tract infection (URI). We describe colonization with these 4 bacteria species alone or in combination during URI. Data were from a prospective cohort of healthy children 6 to 36 months of age followed up for 1 year. Analyses of 968 swabs from 212 children indicated that S. pneumoniae colonization is negatively associated with colonization by H. influenzae. Competitive interactions shifted when H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis colonized together. In this situation, the likelihood of colonization with all 3 species is higher. Negative associations were identified between S. pneumoniae and S. aureus and between H. influenzae and S. aureus. Polymicrobial interactions differed by number and species of bacteria present. Antimicrobial therapy and vaccination strategies targeting specific bacterial species may alter the flora in unforeseen ways.

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    • "The emergence of methicillinresistant S. aureus (MRSA) has become an important public health problem, both as a rising community pathogen and with respect to its potential impact on strategies for antibiotic therapy [7]. More than one microorganism is frequently found in the nasopharynx and polymicrobial interactions definitely exist in the nasopharynx [3] [8] [9] [10] [11]. Some bacterial species may co-exist more often with other species (synergistic interactions), while other species may compete with one another (antagonistic interactions). "
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    ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae are the common pathogens that colonize in the nasopharynx of children. Polymicrobial interactions are thought to play an important role in different sites throughout the human body. However, there are currently very few studies that investigate the interactions between S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, and H. influenzae in the nasopharynx. We retrospectively analyzed the adenoid tissue culture from 269 children who received adenoidectomy. S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, and H. influenzae constituted the major microorganisms which were cultured from these adenoidectomies, at 23.4%, 21.6%, and 18.2%, respectively. S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae were the most prevalent in the preschool-aged children (3 < age ≤ 6), whereas S. aureus was more prevalent in infants and toddlers (age ≤ 3) and school-aged children (age > 6). Bacterial interference was found between S. aureus and S. pneumoniae and between S. aureus and H. influenzae, whereas there was an association found between S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. The synergism and antagonism among these three species are investigated in the following paper, with the possible mechanisms involved in these interactions also discussed.
    03/2015; 5(1):6. DOI:10.7603/s40681-015-0006-9
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    • "For Australian Aboriginal children, the median age of colonisation by these bacteria has been found to be just 10 and 20 days, respectively, in comparison with 209 and 270 days for non- Aboriginal children [4]. A recent review has focussed on bacterial colonisation involving these bacteria within a microbial community and how this might influence a persistent disease or infection state [5]. Sometimes, antibiotic treatment does not eradicate bacteria from the nasopharynx and bacterial biofilm formation has been considered as an etiological factor in bacterial persistence [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) often share a common niche within the nasopharynx, both associated with infections such as bronchitis and otitis media. This study investigated how the association between NTHi and S. pneumoniae and the host affects their propensity to form biofilms. We investigated a selection of bacterial strain and serotype combinations on biofilm formation, and the effect of contact with respiratory epithelial cells. Measurement of biofilm showed that co-infection with NTHi and S. pneumoniae increased biofilm formation following contact with epithelial cells compared to no contact demonstrating the role of epithelial cells in biofilm formation. Additionally, the influence of phosphorylcholine (ChoP) on biofilm production was investigated using the licD mutant strain of NTHi 2019 and found that ChoP had a role in mixed biofilm formation but was not the only requirement. The study highlights the complex interactions between microbes and the host epithelium during biofilm production, suggesting the importance of understanding why certain strains and serotypes differentially influence biofilm formation. A key contributor to increased biofilm formation was the upregulation of biofilm formation by epithelial cell factors.
    Microbes and Infection 07/2014; 16(8). DOI:10.1016/j.micinf.2014.06.008 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    • "n = 8 animals per group. evidence demonstrating the increased occurrence of M. catarrhalis in conjunction with other bacterial species as opposed to alone (Pettigrew et al., 2008). These results demonstrate that the resilient nature of polymicrobial biofilms and suggest other microbe–microbe interactions not characterized in this study may play a role in antimicrobial resistance. "
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    ABSTRACT: Otitis media is an extremely common pediatric ailment caused by opportunists that reside within the nasopharynx. Inflammation within the upper airway can promote ascension of these opportunists into the middle ear chamber. Otitis media can be chronic/recurrent in nature, and a wealth of data indicates that in these cases the bacteria persist within biofilms. Epidemiological data demonstrates most cases of otitis media are polymicrobial, which may have significant impact on antibiotic resistance. In this study, we used in vitro biofilm assays and rodent infection models to examine the impact of polymicrobial infection with Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) on biofilm resistance to antibiotic treatment and persistence in vivo. Consistent with prior work, M. catarrhalis conferred beta-lactamase dependent passive protection from beta-lactam killing to pneumococci within polymicrobial biofilms. Moreover, pneumococci increased resistance of M. catarrhalis to macrolide killing in polymicrobial biofilms. However, pneumococci increased colonization in vivo by M. catarrhalis in a quorum signal-dependent manner. We also found that co-infection with M. catarrhalis affects middle ear ascension of pneumococci in both mice and chinchillas. Therefore, we conclude that residence of M. catarrhalis and pneumococci within the same biofilm community significantly impacts resistance to antibiotic treatment and bacterial persistence in vivo. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Pathogens and Disease 01/2014; 70(3). DOI:10.1111/2049-632X.12129 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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