Libya after Gadhafi
Survival (Impact Factor: 0.61). 06/2011; 53(3):61-74. DOI: 10.1080/00396338.2011.586190
Fears that Libya will become the next Somalia are probably over-blown, but any democratic transition is likely to be protracted and fragile.
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ABSTRACT: Crude petroleum remains the single most imported commodity into Australia and is sourced from a number of countries around the world (Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), 2011a). While interest in crude petroleum is widespread, in recent years Australia's focus has been drawn to the continent of Africa, where increased political stability, economic recovery and an improved investment climate has made one of the largest oil reserves in the world increasingly more attractive. Despite improvement across the continent, there remain a number of risks which have the potential to significantly damage Australia's economic interests in the petroleum sector, including government policies and legislation, corruption and conflict. The longest exporters of crude petroleum products to Australia – Nigeria and Libya – have been subject to these factors in recent years and, accordingly, are the focus of this paper. Once identified, the impact of political instability, conflict, government corruption and other risk factors to Australia's mining interests within these countries is examined, and efforts to manage such risks are discussed.International Journal of Law Crime and Justice 09/2013; 41(3):247–259. DOI:10.1016/j.ijlcj.2013.06.004 · 0.11 Impact Factor
- The Responsibility to Protect and the Third Pillar: Legitimacy and Operationalization, Edited by Daniel Fiott, Joachim Koops, 01/2015: chapter The Use of Force and the Third Pillar: pages 130-145; Palgrave Macmillan., ISBN: 9781137364395
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ABSTRACT: Pillar three of the Responsibility to Protect (RtoP) focuses on the international community's responsibility to take 'timely and decisive action' to prevent and halt genocide, ethnic cleansing, war crimes, and crimes against humanity in those instances where a state is unable or unwilling to protection its own populations. A range of tools have been devised to aid in this 'timely and decisive action': economic sanctions, international criminal trials, and, most controversially, the use of force. The recent crises that have erupted in places such as Libya, Syria, and the Central African Republic highlight the continued relevance of the RtoP debate, but it also gives rise to the need to better understand the processes, opportunities and risks involved in moving from the RtoP as a norm to its operationalization under the third pillar. This book analyses the timeliness, legitimacy, proportionality, and effectiveness of pillar three responses through a series of chapters looking at international law, economic sanctions, military intervention, and alternative actions.Edited by Daniel Fiott and Joachim A. Koops, 01/2015; Palgrave Macmillan., ISBN: 9781137364395
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