Visualization of the course of the sciatic nerve in adult volunteers by ultrasonography.
ABSTRACT The sciatic nerve block by the posterior approaches represents one of the more difficult ultrasound-guided nerve blocks. Our clinical experiences with these blocks indicated a point slightly distal to the subgluteal fold as an advantageous position to allow good ultrasonic visibility. In this study, we systematically scanned the sciatic nerve from the subgluteal fold to the popliteal crease, to determine an optimal point for ultrasonographic visualization.
After institutional approval and written informed consent, we recruited 15 volunteers to visualize the sciatic nerve from the subgluteal fold to the popliteal crease using a linear ultrasound probe in the range of 7-13 MHz. The ultrasonographic visibility of the sciatic nerve, nerve diameter (width and thickness), and skin-to-nerve distance at 20 equidistant points between the subgluteal fold and the popliteal crease were recorded.
The sciatic nerve could be successfully visualized in cross-section as a hyperechoic structure on ultrasound in all volunteers. In the course from subgluteal to the popliteal area, the shape of the sciatic nerve changed from flat to round, while the skin-nerve distance varied with the smallest skin-nerve distances at the popliteal crease and at 5.4 cm (on average) distal to the subgluteal fold. The best ultrasonographic visibility scores were found between 7.2 and 10.8 cm (on average) distal to the gluteal fold.
Between 5.4 and 10.8 cm from the subgluteal fold seems to be the best area to scan the sciatic nerve in terms of superficial nerve position and good ultrasonic visibility.
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ABSTRACT: Minimal data exists on how much sciatic nerve motion occurs during straight leg raise (SLR). The purpose of this study was to report preliminary normative ranges of sciatic nerve excursion using real time ultrasound during a modified SLR. The sciatic nerve was scanned in the posterior thigh in sixteen asymptomatic participants (age range 19-68 years). Nerve excursion was measured in transverse and longitudinal planes during knee extension from 90° to 0°, with the hip flexed to 30° and 60°. The ultrasound data was analysed off-line using cross correlation software. Results demonstrated that most nerves moved superficially during knee extension, a large proportion (10/16) moved laterally. Longitudinal excursion ranged from 6.4 to 14.7 mm (mean (SD) 9.92 mm (2.2)) in 30° hip flexion, and 5.1-20.2 mm (mean (SD) 12.4 mm (4.4)) in 60° hip flexion. Mean nerve excursion was significantly greater in 60° hip flexion (p = 0.02). There is a large between-subject variation in sciatic nerve excursion during this modified SLR in asymptomatic subjects. Mean nerve excursion was found to be higher with the hip pre-positioned in greater flexion, suggesting that pre-loading may not consistently reduce excursion.Manual therapy 09/2013; · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ultrasound imaging provides a method for non-invasive in vivo measurement of nerve motion resulting from joint movement. This study measured the proximal excursion of the tibial branch of the sciatic nerve at the popliteal fossa during forward bending in healthy subjects. Long-axis image sequences of the nerve were analysed using frame-by-frame cross-correlation software that calculated the longitudinal and axial movement of the nerve. Proximal excursion was calculated from the hypotenuse of these values. The mean proximal excursion recorded was 12.2 mm (SD 2.2 mm, n = 24). The reliability of three repeat measurements was found to be excellent (ICC 0.97, 95% CI 0.93-0.99; SEM 0.7 mm, n = 21). The protocol described provides a reliable method for analysing tibial nerve movement that could prove useful in future clinical studies.Ultrasound in medicine & biology 02/2013; · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The use of ultrasound (US), despite some limitations, has been demonstrated as a valuable imaging technique for loco-regional anesthesia (LRA). It can be used also for chronic pain treatment, both as a therapeutic and diagnostic tool, particularly to perform diagnostic selective blocks. In our paper we discuss US-guided LRA techniques to be used for chronic pain treatment, both nociceptive and neuropathic, as an assistance to nerve lesion techniques.Archivio di Ortopedia e Reumatologia 09/2012; 123(2).