Precursors to Offending and the Trauma Outcome Process in Sexually Reactive Children
ABSTRACT The authors delineate five precursors that lead to vulnerability to acting out sexually in children who have been victimized. Fielhor's preconditions for sexual perpetration are reviewed and applied to work with sexually reactive children ages 4- 12. The authors present he "Trauma Outcome Process" as an approach differentiating responses to trauma as self-victimizing. assaultive, andlor healthy coping. This article stresses that victims of sexual abuse make choices in their emotional and behavioral responses to trauma. This approach has implications for treatment.
- SourceAvailable from: Petra K. Staiger
- "focuses on the contribution of family characteristics , cognitive and emotional processes , and prior trauma to the development of problematic sexual behaviour in children . The trauma outcome process approach could be viewed as an integration of the models outlined above . Rasmussen et al . ( 1992 ) have identified five factors which are considered necessary for the development of problematic sexual behaviour in children - prior traumatisation , lack of empathy , social inadequacy , lack of accountability and impulsiveness . This approach draws on PTSD theory , psychodynamic theory , cognitive behavioural and humanistic approache"
- "En effet, les enfants proviennent de milieux où le système d'encadrement est déficient (absence de surveillance et de soutien) et où l'environnement est sexualisé (absence de frontières sexuelles, accessibilité à du matériel pornographique, exposition à des activités sexuelles d'adultes). Enfin, les parents éprouvent d'importantes difficultés d'ordres personnel et conjugal (problèmes Implication des parents dans l'intervention des enfants présentant des comportements sexuels inadaptés L'agression sexuelle : coopérer au-delà des frontières, Cifas 2005 531 de santé mentale, habiletés parentales déficitaires, violence conjugale) (Bentovim, 2002; Bonner et al., 1999; Friedrich & Luecke, 1988; Gagnon, Bégin, & Tremblay, 2005; Gray et al., 1997, 1999; Hall & Mathews, 1996; Hall et al., 1998, 2002; Johnson, 1993a; Pithers, Gray, Busconi, & Houchens, 1998a, 1998b; Rasmussen, Burton, & Christopherson, 1992; Ray & English, 1995; Ryan, 2002). "
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- "In addition, boys may have more childhood sexual experiences than girls, and may actually become physiologically aroused and sexually conditioned more quickly than girls (Watkins & Bentovim, 1992). Some authors have suggested that a specific form of abuse is most likely to lead to the same type of violence (e.g., sexual abuse leads to sexual violence, physical abuse leads to physical violence) (e.g., Bagley et al.; Falshaw et al., 1996; Rasmussen et al., 1992; Ryan, 1989). In contrast, some authors have suggested that specific maltreatment type does not lead to the same type of offending and that any type of victimization may lead to any category of crime (Benoit & Kennedy, 1992; Widom & Ames, 1994). "
ABSTRACT: The transitional period of adolescence is characterized by a number of changes and challenges that occur both within and outside the individual. Many developmental events occur during adolescence that have a significant impact on an adolescent’s functioning, including a variety of physical, cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and social changes. In addition, adolescents may experience a variety of other important events, such as peer group changes, school moves, changes in family structure or functioning, and alterations in societal and community expectations (Hansen, Giacoletti, & Nangle, 1995; Peterson & Hamburg, 1986). Unfortunately, many adolescents are further challenged by being a victim of sexual abuse. The widespread prevalence of sexual abuse and the numerous problems and consequences associated with it have been increasingly recognized in recent decades (e.g., Browne & Finkelhor, 1986; Faller, 1993; V. V. Wolfe & Wolfe, 1988). In addition, much has been learned about the treatment of sexually abused children and adolescents during that time (e.g., Hansen, Hecht, & Futa, 1998; O’Donohue & Elliot, 1992). Given that victims of sexual abuse are at risk to develop sexualized behaviors, and that adolescents, for a variety of reasons (e.g., puberty, peer influences) are likely to begin engaging in sexual acts, this population needs special attention to help prevent the intergenerational transmission of abuse. This chapter addresses sexual abuse of adolescent victims and intergenerational issues in sexual abuse. The problem of sexual abuse is described, including historical background and epidemiological information. The potential impact and correlates of sexual abuse are discussed, including characteristics of adolescent victims and their families. The assessment and treatment of sexually abused adolescents is described, with attention to issues of prognosis and clinical management.