Upregulation of TNF-alpha is a key early response to ultraviolet B (UVB) by keratinocytes (KCs), and represents an important component of the inflammatory cascade in skin. UVB irradiation induces TNF-alpha expression in both KCs and dermal fibroblasts, with TNF-alpha mRNA induction seen as early as 1.5 h after UVB. We previously reported that the effects are wavelength-specific: TNF-alpha expression and secretion are induced by UVB (290-320 nm), but not by UVA (320-400 nm). Moreover, we found that IL-1alpha, a cytokine also present in irradiated skin, substantially and synergistically enhances the induction of TNF-alpha by UVB, and the induction of TNF-alpha by this combination of UVB with IL-1alpha is mediated through increased TNF-alpha gene transcription. We investigated the molecular mechanism for UVB-induction of the TNF-alpha gene with a series of TNF-alpha promoter constructs, ranging from 1.2 kbp (from -1179 to +1 with respect to the TNF-alpha transcription initiation site) down to 0.1 kbp (-109 to +1), each driving expression of a CAT reporter. Our results showed a persistent nine to tenfold increase of CAT activity in all TNF-alpha promoter/reporter constructs in response to UVB (30 mJ/cm(2)) exposure. These results indicate the presence of UVB-responsive cis-element(s) located between -109 and +1 of the TNF-alpha promoter, a region that contains a putative AP-1 site and a putative NFkB site. UVB-induction was abolished when the TNF-alpha promoter was mutated by one base pair at the AP-1 binding site. Cells treated with SP600125, an AP-1 inhibitor that inhibits JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase), also showed suppression of the 0.1 kbp TNF-alpha promoter/reporter construct. The authentic endogenous gene in untransfected cells was also blocked by the inhibitor. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay indicated new complexes from UVB-treated nuclear extracts and anti-phospho-c-Jun, a regulatory component of the AP-1 transcription factor, creating a supershift indicating increased phosphorylation of c-Jun and hence higher AP-1 activity. Keratinocyte-derived TNF-alpha is a component of the early induction phase of the inflammatory cascade.
"It leads to release of ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) including superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, hypochlorous acid, nitric oxide, and peroxynitrite which contribute to the pathogenesis of wounds. It has been reported that elevated levels of TNF-a and IL-1b caused apoptosis and decreased fibroblasts proliferation resulting in delayed wound healing (Bashir et al., 2009). Moreover, TNF-a has potential to inhibit TGF-b and collagen gene expression in vivo (Buck et al., 1996). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wound healing is a consequence of a complex process involving inflammatory, proliferative, and remodeling phases. Naringin, a flavanone glycoside, is associated with modulation of various oxido-inflammatory and growth factors.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the wound-healing activity of naringin ointment formulation (NOF) on experimental wound models.
A soft paraffin-based cream containing 1, 2, and 4% (w/w) naringin was formulated and evaluated for physicochemical characters. Excision wounds and incisions wounds were used to study the topical effect of NOF for 20 d (once a day) on various biochemical, molecular, and histological parameters.
NOF (2 and 4%, w/w) treatment showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in wound area and epithelization period whereas the rate of wound contraction increased significantly (p < 0.05). The altered levels of oxido-nitrosative stress (SOD, GSH, MDA, MPO, and NO) were significantly (p < 0.05) restored by NOF. Treatment produced a significant increase (p < 0.05) in tensile strength, hydroxyproline content, and protein content. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, NF-κB, smad-7, and Bax mRNA expression were significantly down-regulated (p < 0.05) by NOF, whereas polymerase gamma (pol-γ), smad-3, VEGF and TGF-β, and collagen-1 mRNA expressions were significantly up-regulated (p < 0.05) by NOF. Histological alterations in wound skin were also restored by NOF.
NOF exerts wound healing potential via down-regulated expression of inflammatory (NF-κB, TNF-α, and ILs), apoptotic (pol-γ and Bax), and up-regulated growth factor (VEGF and TGF-β) expression, thus modulating collagen-1 expression to induce angiogenesis leading to wound healing.
"This UVR-induced sensitization relies on intercellular communication between epidermal cells and peripheral neurons using Drosophila tumor necrosis factor (TNF) as a signaling molecule. TNF-mediated intercellular communication has been shown to play a major role in the development of inflammation and hyperalgesia following UVR in mammalian integuments [31,32]. Taken together, these observations suggest that UVR activates similar cellular and molecular events in vertebrate and invertebrate integuments. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complex Drosophila larval peripheral nervous system, capable of monitoring sensory input from the external environment, includes a family of multiple dendritic (md) neurons with extensive dendritic arbors tiling the inner surface of the larval body wall. The class IV multiple dendritic (mdIV) neurons are the most complex with dendritic nerve endings forming direct intimate contacts with epithelial cells of the larval body wall. Functioning as polymodal mechanonociceptors with the ability to respond to both noxious mechanical stimulation and noxious heat, the mdIV neurons are also activated by nanomolar levels of the endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS), H2O2. Although often associated with tissue damage related to oxidative stress, endogenous ROS have also been shown to function as signaling molecules at lower concentrations. The overall role of ROS in sensory signaling is poorly understood but the acutely sensitive response of mdIV neurons to ROS-mediated activation is consistent with a routine role in the regulation of mdIV neuronal activity. Larvae respond to short wavelength ultraviolet (UVC) light with an immediate and visual system-independent writhing and twisting of the body previously described as a nociceptive response. Molecular and cellular mechanisms mediating this response and potential relationships with ROS generation are not well understood. We have used the UVC-induced writhing response as a model for investigation of the proposed link between endogenous ROS production and mdIV neuron function in the larval body wall.
Transgenic inactivation of mdIV neurons caused a strong suppression of UVC-induced writhing behavior consistent with a key role for the mdIV neurons as mediators of the behavioral response. Direct imaging of ROS-activated fluorescence showed that UVC irradiation caused a significant increase in endogenous ROS levels in the larval body wall and transgenic overexpression of antioxidant enzymes strongly suppressed the UVC-induced writhing response. Direct electrophysiological recordings demonstrated that UVC irradiation also increased neuronal activity of the mdIV neurons.
Results obtained using UVC irradiation to induce ROS generation provide evidence that UVC-induced writhing behavior is mediated by endogenous production of ROS capable of activating mdIV mechanonociceptors in the larval body wall.
"TNF-α is a cytokine associated with UVB-induced immunosuppression, and release of TNF-α from keratinocytes is stimulated by UV radiation . Therefore, we next investigated whether chafuroside B suppresses UVB-induced TNF-α production in cultured NHEK. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chafuroside B was recently isolated as a new polyphenolic constituent of oolong tea leaves. However, the effects of chafuroside B on skin function have not been examined. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of chafuroside B against UVB-induced DNA damage, apoptosis and generation of photo-immunosuppression related mediators in cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK). Chafuroside B at 1 µM attenuated both UVB-induced apoptosis, evaluated in terms of caspase-3/7 activity, and UVB-induced DNA damage, evaluated in terms of formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), in NHEK exposed to UVB (20 mJ/cm(2)). In addition, chafuroside B at 0.3 or 1 µM suppressed the UVB-induced production of interleukin (IL)-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), as determined by ELISA, and conversely enhanced IL-12 mRNA expression and production, as measured by RT-PCR and ELISA. Further, chafuroside B at 1 µM also suppressed UVB-induced expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) mRNA. These results indicate that chafuroside B promotes repair of UVB-induced DNA damage and ameliorates the generation of IL-10, TNF-α, PGE2, and RANKL, all of which are UVB-induced immunosuppression related mediators. These effects of chafuroside B may be mediated at least in part through induction of IL-12 synthesis in human keratinocytes. Because chafuroside B might have practical value as a photoprotective agent, a further study of the in vivo effects of chafuroside B seems warranted.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e77308. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0077308 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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