Phthalate exposure among pregnant women in Jerusalem, Israel: results of a pilot study.
ABSTRACT Phthalates can disrupt endocrine function and induce reproductive and developmental toxicity in laboratory animals. Few studies have evaluated exposure to phthalates in pregnant women, despite the potential sensitivity of the developing fetus to adverse effects of phthalates.
We measured urinary concentrations of 11 phthalate metabolites in 19 pregnant women, recruited in Jerusalem, Israel in 2006, and collected questionnaire data on demographic factors and consumer habits from these women. We compared geometric mean concentrations in subgroups and used the Mann-Whitney U-test for independent samples to determine significant differences between groups.
Nine metabolites were detected in at least 95% of the samples: mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate, mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, mono(n-butyl) phthalate, monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and monoisobutyl phthalate. Phthalate metabolite concentrations in these pregnant women were remarkably similar to those in the general United States female population. MBzP geometric mean concentrations were higher in women living in buildings existing 40 years or more (P=0.04). In women who used four or more personal care products (perfume, deodorant, lipstick, nail polish, or hand/face cream) in the 48 h prior to providing the urine sample, geometric mean MEP concentrations were more than 4 times higher than concentrations in women using only two or three of the aforementioned products (P=0.07).
Pregnant women in Jerusalem are exposed to a wide range of phthalates. Building materials used in old constructions may be a source of exposure to benzylbutyl phthalate, the parent compound of MBzP. Personal care products may be sources of exposure to diethyl phthalate, the parent compound of MEP.
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ABSTRACT: Increasing scientific evidence suggests that exposure to phthalates during pregnancy may be associated with an elevated risk of adverse reproductive outcomes such as preterm birth. Maternal endocrine disruption across pregnancy may be one pathway mediating some of these relationships. We investigated whether urinary phthalate metabolites were associated with maternal serum thyroid (free thyroxine [FT4], free triiodothyronine [FT3], and thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH]), and sex (estradiol, progesterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin [SHBG]) hormone levels at multiple time points during pregnancy. Preliminary data (n = 106) were obtained from an ongoing prospective birth cohort in Northern Puerto Rico. We collected urine and serum sample at the first and third study visits that occurred at 18 +/- 2 and 26 +/- 2 weeks of gestation, respectively. To explore the longitudinal relationships between urinary phthalate metabolites and serum thyroid and sex hormone concentrations, we used linear mixed models (LMMs) adjusted for prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and maternal age. An interaction term was added to each LMM to test whether the effect of urinary phthalate metabolites on serum thyroid and sex hormone levels varied by study visit. In cross-sectional analyses, we stratified BMI- and age-adjusted linear regression models by study visit. In adjusted LMMs, we observed significant inverse associations between mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP) and FT3 and between mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) and progesterone. In cross-sectional analyses by study visit, we detected stronger and statistically significant inverse associations at the third study visit between FT3 and MCPP as well as mono-carboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCOP); also at the third study visit, significant inverse associations were observed between FT4 and metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). The inverse association between MEP and progesterone was consistent across study visits. In this group of pregnant women, urinary phthalate metabolites may be associated with altered maternal serum thyroid and sex hormone levels, and the magnitude of these effects may depend on the timing of exposure during gestation.Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 01/2015; 13(1):4. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective Phthalates are a group of phthalic acid esters and these are used as plasticizers. Several studies have described phthalate exposure in other countries, but there are no such reports from Korea. We assessed exposure to phthalic acid in the urine of full term pregnant women. Methods There were 32 full term deliveries in our hospital from August, 2009 to April, 2010. We received approval from the Institutional Review Board at our hospital and written informed concept from all the patients. We review the obstetrics history, the history of medical illness and other problems. To assess exposure to different phthalates, we measured the concentrations of nine phthalate metabolites in the spot urine samples collected 24 hours before delivery. The urinary concentrations of 10 phthalate ester metabolites (mono-methyl phthalate [MMP], mono-ethyl phthalate [MEP], mono-n-butyl phthalate [MnBP], mono benzyl phthalate [MBzP], mono-[2-ethylhexyl] phthalate [MEHP], mono-[2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl] phthalate [MEHHP], mono-[2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl] phthalate [MEOHP], mono-isobutyl phthalate [MiBP], mono-[2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl] phthalate [5cx-MEPP], and mono-[2-carboxymethylhexyl] phthalate [2cx-MMHP]) were analyzed in the spot urine samples collected from the pregnant women. The data is being used as a pilot study for a large multicenter study. Results The mean age was 31.1±3.2 years. The mean gestational age was 38.4±1.3 weeks. The creatinine-corrected concentration (geometric mean: μg/g Cr) was 1.754 (MMP), 3.443 (MEP), 3.839 (MnBP), 2.721 (MBzP), 2.437 (MEHP), 4.042 (MEHHP), 3.504 (MEOHP), 2.805 (MiBP), 3.765 (5cx-MEPP), and 3.775 (2cx-MMHP).Korean Journal of Obstetrics. 01/2011; 54(3).
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ABSTRACT: The age of pubertal onset for girls has declined over past decades. Research suggests that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may play a role but exposure at multiple stages of development has not been considered. We examined in utero and peripubertal exposure to bisphenol-A (BPA) and phthalates in relation to serum hormones and sexual maturation among females in a Mexico City birth cohort. We measured phthalate metabolite and BPA concentrations in urine collected from mothers during their third trimester (n=116) and from their female children at ages 8-13 years (n=129). Among girls, we measured concurrent serum hormone concentrations, Tanner stages for breast and pubic hair development, and collected information on menarche onset. We used linear and logistic regression to model associations between in utero and peripubertal measures of exposure with hormones and sexual maturation, respectively, controlling for covariates. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in in utero urinary mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) was positively associated with 29% (95% CI: 9.2-52.6%) higher dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), an early indicator of adrenarche, and 5.3 (95% CI: 1.13-24.9) times higher odds of a Tanner stage >1 for pubic hair development. Similar relationships were observed with other in utero but not peripubertal di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites. IQR increases in in utero monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) were associated with 29% and 25% higher serum testosterone concentrations (95% CI: 4.3-59.3; 2.1-54.1), respectively. In addition, we observed suggestive associations between in utero and peripubertal MEP concentrations and increased odds of having undergone menarche, and between peripubertal MnBP concentrations and increased odds of having a Tanner stage >1 for both breast and pubic hair development. BPA was not associated with in utero or peripubertal serum hormones or sexual maturation. Our findings suggest in utero phthalate exposure may impact hormone concentrations during peripubescence and timing of sexual maturation. Efforts to control phthalate exposure during pregnancy should be of high priority.Environmental Research 08/2014; 134C:233-241. · 3.95 Impact Factor