We investigated the prevalence of congenital renal and urologic anomalies in children with congenital hypothyroidism to determine whether further renal and urologic investigations would be of benefit.
Prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism was obtained from the New York State Congenital Malformation Registry. The occurrence of urinary tract anomalies were calculated for children with congenital hypothyroidism and compared to children without congenital hypothyroidism. In addition we obtained congenital hypothyroidism data from New York State newborn screening, and the cases were matched to Congenital Malformation Registry.
Analysis of Congenital Malformation Registry data showed 980 children with congenital hypothyroidism and 3 661 585 children without congenital hypothyroidism born in New York State (1992-2005). Children with congenital hypothyroidism have a significantly increased risk of congenital renal and urological anomalies with the odds ratio (OR) of 13.2 (10.6-16.5). The other significantly increased defects in congenital hypothyroidism were cardiac, gastrointestinal, and skeletal. Analysis of matched data confirmed an increase of congenital renal and urologic anomalies with OR of 4.8 (3.7-6.3).
Children with congenital hypothyroidism have an increased prevalence of congenital renal and urologic anomalies. We suggest that these children should be evaluated for the presence of congenital renal and urologic anomalies with renal ultrasonography, and that further studies of common genes involved in thyroid and kidney development are warranted.
"However, no evidence of hydronephrosis (AP diameter of 10 mm or more) was found. Kumar et al (8) have reported a high incidence of congenital anomalies pertaining to the heart and to the gastrointestinal and urogenital systems in CH patients. They demonstrated that hydronephrosis was the most prevalent renal anomaly in CH children (8). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) increases the prevalence of kidney and urogenital malformations. There are limited studies considering different aspects of kidney function in well-controlled CH patients. We evaluated some features of kidney function in euthyroid children with CH who have been receiving thyroxine hormone since early life.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Isfahan, Iran, on 74 children aged 2-15 years old (36 CH patients and 38 healthy children). Inclusion criteria for CH patients were euthyroidism at the time of the survey and initiation of replacement therapy during the early neonatal period. Kidney ultrasound evaluation was performed in all participants. Serum biochemistry included urea, creatinine, sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium, calcium, and cystatin C levels. Urine electrolytes, fraction excretion (FE) of electrolytes and microalbumin, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were also determined.
Results: The male/female ratio was 0.8/1 and 1.5/1 in the patient and control groups, respectively. Mean age and height did not differ significantly between the two groups. Ultrasound evaluation of the kidney revealed that the anteroposterior diameter of the right kidney was significantly higher in CH patients as compared to healthy subjects. No significant difference was observed between GFRs in patients with CH and healthy children. The mean values for FENa and FEK were significantly higher in the patient group.
Conclusions: Increased FENa and FEK may be a manifestation of impaired tubular maturation in CH. More longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate kidney function in CH patients.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology 12/2012; 4(4):193-8. DOI:10.4274/jcrpe.811
"However, severe hyperthyroidism results in protein breakdown and eventual renal atrophy. In addition, children with congenital hypothyroidism have a high incidence of congenital renal anomalies. Thyroid hormones also influence the neonatal renal function. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are several interactions between thyroid and kidney functions in each other organ's disease states. Thyroid hormones affect renal development and physiology. Thyroid hormones have pre-renal and intrinsic renal effects by which they increase the renal blood flow and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Hypothyroidism is associated with reduced GFR and hyperthyroidism results in increased GFR as well as increased renin - angiotensin - aldosterone activation. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by a low T3 syndrome which is now considered a part of an atypical nonthyroidal illness. CKD patients also have increased incidence of primary hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism. The physiological benefits of a hypothyroid state in CKD, and the risk of CKD progression with hyperthyroidism emphasize on a conservative approach in the treatment of thyroid hormone abnormalities in CKD. Thyroid dysfunction is also associated with glomerulonephritis often by a common autoimmune etiology. Several drugs could affect both thyroid and kidney functions. There are few described interactions between thyroid and renal malignancies. A detailed knowledge of all these interactions is important for both the nephrologists and endocrinologists for optimal management of the patient.
"Some of the TFs involved in thyroid gland development are also involved in the development of other tissues, such as the kidneys and lungs. There is an increased odds ratio of 13.2 for having renal and urinary tract abnormalities in children with congenital hypothyroidism versus children without congenital hypothyroidism (9). For further details of thyroid gland development, several reviews are recommended (10, 11, 12). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article explores the basic development and pathophysiology of the thyroid gland. New factors in the normal development of the thyroid in the neonate are mentioned. The incidence of congenital hypothyroidism continues to increase. We describe congenital hypothyroidism, its possible etiologies, treatment and outcomes. We explore hypothyroxinanemia in pre−term neonates and the risk/benefit of prophylactic thyroid hormone replacement. We discuss the late rise of thyrotropin (TSH) in ill infants and those with very low birth weight. Ill infants or those born premature should have their thyroid function tests routinely monitored. On the occasion of borderline thyroid function test results, TRH testing can be useful in identifying those infants with either persistent or transient hypothyroidism. TRH testing is also helpful in identifying those patients with secondary hypothyroidism. With the early identification and prompt and proper treatment, neonates with congenital hypothyroidism, transient or persistent, should have positive long−term outcomes.
Conflict of interest:None declared.
Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology 09/2010; 2(3):95-9. DOI:10.4274/jcrpe.v2i3.95
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