[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New reports indicate a chromosomal rather than hormonal basis for the susceptibility of females to autoimmune disease. It is held that if females reactivate an inactivated X chromosome, there will be overexpression of certain X-located genes affecting immune function. Hence, normal mechanisms of self/not-self discrimination might be impaired resulting in immune reaction to self antigens. However, the data are also consistent with the long-held view that the demands of intracellular self/not-self discrimination have driven the evolution of X-chromosome dosage compensation. It was proposed that, whether cells are in male or female bodies, concentrations of proteins are fine-tuned up to their aggregation thresholds. A disruption of this equilibrium, by agents originating either externally (for example, virus) or internally (for example, reactivated X chromosome), generates homoaggregates that trigger responses against the respective not-self or self antigens. Thus, female susceptibility to autoimmune disease may not be because certain immune system genes happen to be X-located, but because self/not-self discrimination was the raison d'être for X-chromosome dosage compensation in the first place.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SLE is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disorder that predominantly affects young women. Based on this observation, it has been speculated that sex steroids, particularly estrogens, contribute to SLE disease progression. Young women with SLE are at an increased risk for the development of hypertension yet the reasons for this are unclear. One potential mechanism for the increased risk of hypertension during SLE is the chronic inflammation caused by immune complex mediated tissue injury. Estrogens are known to have an immunomodulatory role that can lead to the production of characteristic autoantibodies important for immune complex formation. Therefore, it is conceivable that during SLE estrogens contribute to tissue injury, increased inflammation and hypertension. This brief review discusses the increased risk for hypertension during SLE, the role of estrogens in immune system function, evidence for estrogens in SLE, and a possible link between estrogens and SLE hypertension.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disorder that predominantly affects women of childbearing age, with a female-to-male ratio of approximately 9:1. Previous findings indicated that male cases of SLE were associated with Klinefelter's syndrome (47, XXY), whereas females with Turner's syndrome (45, X0) did not contract SLE. Additionally, duplicated Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) was found to promote lupus-like disease. Consequently, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the TLR7 gene served as a genetic marker for the development of SLE. A case-control study was performed on one tag single nucleotide polymorphism TLR7 rs1634323 in a population with 507 SLE patients and 513 healthy controls. Genotyping was determined by the TaqMan genotyping assay using the ABI 7300 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction system. The results showed a significantly elevated risk of SLE with the rs1634323 AG genotype in females (P = 0.040, OR = 1.897, 95% CI 1.031-3.491), whereas a similar association was not replicated in males (P = 0.303, OR = 0.338, 95% CI 0.043-2.656). In a subgroup analysis by clinical manifestation of lupus nephritis, no significant differences were found. These findings indicate that the TLR7 gene rs1634323 polymorphism may contribute to SLE susceptibility in females.
Molecular Medicine Reports 04/2012; 6(1):105-10. DOI:10.3892/mmr.2012.865 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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