Role of glutathione S-transferase Pi in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue, P.O. Box 250505, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.
Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie (Impact Factor: 2.24). 10/2008; 63(2):79-85. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2008.08.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT One of the dose-limiting toxicities of cisplatin is nephrotoxicity. Renal toxicity is localized to quiescent proximal tubule cells, where the formation of DNA-adducts cannot account for the dose-limiting toxicity. Our earlier results have shown that a glutathione conjugate of cisplatin is metabolized to a nephrotoxicant via gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and a cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyase. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential role of glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTP) in the initial steps of the bioactivation of cisplatin. Wild-type mice and mice deficient in both murine GSTP genes (GstP1/P2) were treated with cisplatin. Toxicity in both male and female mice was evaluated 5 days after treatment and renal damage was most severe in wild-type male mice. Wild-type males have approximately 10-fold higher levels of GSTP expression in the liver than females, suggesting that hepatic GSTP in the wild-type males contributed to the formation of the nephrotoxic platinum-glutathione conjugate. In GstP1/P2 null mice the gender difference in toxicity was eliminated. Our data show that GSTP expression is a determinant in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and its levels contribute to sex-dependent differences.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sildenafil, the first drug for erectile dysfunction, has cardiopulmonary protective actions. A recent study has reported that sildenafil given intraperitoneally (i.p.) attenuated cisplatin (CP)-induced nephrotoxicity. Here, we evaluated whether sildenafil, given by two different routes and at two different doses, can attenuate CP-induced nephrotoxicity and would also affect renal haemodynamics in CP-treated rats. Six groups of rats were treated with saline (controls), CP [5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.) once], sildenafil (0.4 mg/kg/day, i.p. for 5 days), sildenafil (0.4 mg/kg/day i.p. for 5 days) plus CP (5 mg/kg, i.p., once), sildenafil [10 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous (s.c.) for 5 days] or sildenafil (10 mg/kg/day, s.c. for 5 days) plus CP (5 mg/kg, i.p. once). Five days after the end of the treatments, urine was collected from all rats, which were then anaesthetized for blood pressure and renal blood flow monitoring. This was followed by intravenous (i.v.) injection of norepinephrine for the measurement of renal vasoconstrictor responses. Thereafter, blood and kidneys were collected for measurement of several biochemical, functional and structural parameters. CP reduced body-weight and renal blood flow but did not affect norepinephrine-induced renal vasoconstriction. It increased the plasma concentrations of urea and creatinine, and reduced creatinine clearance. CP caused extensive renal tubular necrosis, increased urine volume and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity. When sildenafil (0.4 mg/kg/day, i.p. for 5 days) was combined with cisplatin, there was a dramatic improvement in renal histopathology, reduction in N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and increase in renal blood flow. However, sildenafil (10 mg/kg/day, s.c. for 5 days) did not affect CP nephrotoxicity, suggesting the importance of dose and route selection of sildenafil as a nephroprotectant.
    Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 05/2011; 109(4):300-8. · 2.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are a multigene family of ubiquitously expressed, polymorphic enzymes responsible for the metabolism of a wide range of both endogenous and exogenous substrates, play a central role in the adaptive response to chemical and oxidative stress, and are subject to regulation by a range of structurally unrelated chemicals. In this review, we present a current summary of knockout mouse models in the GST field, discussing some of the issues pertaining to orthologous proteins between mice and humans, the potential confounding issues related to genetic background, and also cover new transgenic models in the increasingly important area of humanization.
    Drug Metabolism Reviews 03/2011; 43(2):152-64. · 5.54 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cisplatin is an effective anti-cancer drug; however, its clinical use is usually associated with nephrotoxicity as a dose-limiting side effect. Several molecular mechanisms have been found to be involved in this nephrotoxicity such as oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to explore the potential nephroprotective effect of cardamonin, a flavone found in Alpinia plant, in a rat model of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. The possible mechanisms underlying this nephroprotective effect were investigated. Cardamonin was given at two different doses; 10 and 30mg/kg orally for two weeks, starting one week before giving a single nephrotoxic dose of cisplatin (7mg/kg). Acute nephrtoxicity was evident by significantly increased blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels. Also, cisplatin increased lipid peroxidation, depleted reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase. Additionally, cisplatin showed a marked pro-inflammatory response as evidenced by significant increase in tissue levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, NF-kB, iNOS, ICAM-1 and MCP-1. Pre-treatment with cardamonin significantly attenuated the nephrotoxic effects, oxidative stress and inflammation induced by cisplatin, in a dose-dependent manner. Also, cardamonin decreased caspase-3 expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as compared to cisplatin group. Besides, cradamonin reversed cisplatin-induced decrease in EGF. Furthermore, up-regulation of NOX-1 was found to be involved in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and its expression was significantly reduced by cardamonin. Histopathological examination further confirmed the nephroprotective effect of cardamonin. Moreover, pre-treatment with subtoxic concentration of cardamonin has significantly enhanced cisplatin cytotoxic activity in four different human cancer cell lines; hela, hepG2, PC3 and HCT116 cancer cell lines. In conclusion, these findings suggest that cardamonin improves therapeutic index of cisplatin and that NOX-1 is partially involved in the pathogenesis of cispaltin-induced nephrotoxicity.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 11/2013; · 3.98 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Sep 24, 2014