Cloning, expression and subcellular distribution of a Rana grylio virus late gene encoding ERV1 homologue.
ABSTRACT An essential for respiration and viability (ERV1) homologue, 88R, was cloned and characterized from Rana grylio virus (RGV). Database searches found its homologues in all sequenced iridoviruses, and sequence alignment revealed a highly conserved motif shared by all ERV1 family proteins: Cys-X-X-Cys. RT-PCR and western blot analysis revealed that 88R begins to transcribe and translate at 6 h postinfection (p.i.) and remains detectable at 48 h p.i. during RGV infection course. Furthermore, using drug inhibition analysis by a de novo protein synthesis inhibitor and a viral DNA replication inhibitor, RGV 88R was classified as a late (L) viral gene during the in vitro infection. 88R-EGFP fusion protein was observed in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of pEGFP-N3-88R transfected EPC cells. Although result of immunofluorescence is similar, 88R protein was not detected in viromatrix. Moreover, function of RGV 88R on virus replication were evaluated by RNAi assay. Nevertheless, effect of knockdown of RGV 88R expression on virus replication was not detected in cultured fish cell lines. Collectively, current data indicate that RGV 88R was a late gene of iridovirus encoding protein that distributed both the cytoplasm and nucleus.
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ABSTRACT: The complete genome of Rana grylio virus (RGV) was sequenced and analyzed recently, which revealed that RGV 50 L had homologues in many iridoviruses with different identities; however, the characteristics and functions of 50 L have not been studied yet. We cloned and characterized RGV50L, and revealed 50 L functions in virus assembly and gene regulation. 50 L encoded a 499-amino acid structural protein of about 85 kDa in molecular weight and contained a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a helix- extension-helix motif. Drug inhibition assay demonstrated that 50 L was an immediate-early (IE) gene. Immuno-fluorescence assay revealed that 50 L appeared early and persisted in RGV-infected cells following two distribution patterns. One pattern was that 50 L exhibited a cytoplasm-nucleus- viromatrix distribution pattern, and mutagenesis of the NLS motif revealed that localization of 50 L in the nucleus was NLS-dependent; the other was that 50 L co-localized with viral matrix which plays important roles in virus assembly and the life circle of viruses. RGV 50L is a novel iridovirus IE gene encoded structural protein which plays important roles in virus assembly.PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e43033. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0043033 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Envelope protein 53R was identified from frog Rana grylio virus (RGV), a member of the family Iridoviridae, and it plays an important role in the virus assembly. Although inhibition of iridovirus major capsid protein (MCP) by small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) has been shown to cause resistance to viral infection in vitro, RNA interference (RNAi) to inhibit aquatic animal virus envelope protein gene product has not been reported. We devised artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) that target a viral envelope protein gene RGV 53R. By incorporating sequences encoding amiRNAs specific to 53R of RGV into pre-miRNA155 (pSM155) vectors, which use the backbone of natural miR-155 sequence and could intracellularly express 53R-targeted pre-amiRNAs. The pre-amiRNAs could be processed by the RNase III-like enzyme Dicer into 21-25 nt amiRNAs (amiR-53Rs) in fish cell lines. The levels of 53R expression were analyzed through real-time PCR and RGV virions assembly were observed by electronic microscopy in fish cells transfected with or without amiR-53Rs at 72 h of RGV infection. The results argue that viral envelope protein RGV 53R can be silenced and the virions assembly was deficient by amiR-53R-1, and further identified the first amiRNA of envelope protein gene from iridovirus that was able to cause resistance to virus infection in fish cells. The data demonstrate that the viral infection is efficiently suppressed (58%) by amiR-53R-1 targeting positon 36-57 of RGV 53R. Moreover, electron microscopic observations revealed virion assembly defect or reduced virions assembly capacity was closely correlated to expression of amiR-53R-1. Based on real time PCR of the Mx gene, we found no evidence of activation of IFN by amiR-53R-1.PLoS ONE 04/2010; 5(4):e10308. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0010308 · 3.53 Impact Factor
- Biomass and Bioenergy 05/2011; doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.01.045(5). DOI:10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.01.045 · 3.41 Impact Factor