Cloning, expression and subcellular distribution of a Rana grylio virus late gene encoding ERV1 homologue.
ABSTRACT An essential for respiration and viability (ERV1) homologue, 88R, was cloned and characterized from Rana grylio virus (RGV). Database searches found its homologues in all sequenced iridoviruses, and sequence alignment revealed a highly conserved motif shared by all ERV1 family proteins: Cys-X-X-Cys. RT-PCR and western blot analysis revealed that 88R begins to transcribe and translate at 6 h postinfection (p.i.) and remains detectable at 48 h p.i. during RGV infection course. Furthermore, using drug inhibition analysis by a de novo protein synthesis inhibitor and a viral DNA replication inhibitor, RGV 88R was classified as a late (L) viral gene during the in vitro infection. 88R-EGFP fusion protein was observed in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of pEGFP-N3-88R transfected EPC cells. Although result of immunofluorescence is similar, 88R protein was not detected in viromatrix. Moreover, function of RGV 88R on virus replication were evaluated by RNAi assay. Nevertheless, effect of knockdown of RGV 88R expression on virus replication was not detected in cultured fish cell lines. Collectively, current data indicate that RGV 88R was a late gene of iridovirus encoding protein that distributed both the cytoplasm and nucleus.
Article: Viral envelope protein 53R gene highly specific silencing and iridovirus resistance in fish Cells by AmiRNA.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Envelope protein 53R was identified from frog Rana grylio virus (RGV), a member of the family Iridoviridae, and it plays an important role in the virus assembly. Although inhibition of iridovirus major capsid protein (MCP) by small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) has been shown to cause resistance to viral infection in vitro, RNA interference (RNAi) to inhibit aquatic animal virus envelope protein gene product has not been reported. We devised artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) that target a viral envelope protein gene RGV 53R. By incorporating sequences encoding amiRNAs specific to 53R of RGV into pre-miRNA155 (pSM155) vectors, which use the backbone of natural miR-155 sequence and could intracellularly express 53R-targeted pre-amiRNAs. The pre-amiRNAs could be processed by the RNase III-like enzyme Dicer into 21-25 nt amiRNAs (amiR-53Rs) in fish cell lines. The levels of 53R expression were analyzed through real-time PCR and RGV virions assembly were observed by electronic microscopy in fish cells transfected with or without amiR-53Rs at 72 h of RGV infection. The results argue that viral envelope protein RGV 53R can be silenced and the virions assembly was deficient by amiR-53R-1, and further identified the first amiRNA of envelope protein gene from iridovirus that was able to cause resistance to virus infection in fish cells. The data demonstrate that the viral infection is efficiently suppressed (58%) by amiR-53R-1 targeting positon 36-57 of RGV 53R. Moreover, electron microscopic observations revealed virion assembly defect or reduced virions assembly capacity was closely correlated to expression of amiR-53R-1. Based on real time PCR of the Mx gene, we found no evidence of activation of IFN by amiR-53R-1.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(4):e10308. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: The molecular biology of frog virus 3 and other iridoviruses infecting cold-blooded vertebrates.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Frog virus 3 (FV3) is the best characterized member of the family Iridoviridae. FV3 study has provided insights into the replication of other family members, and has served as a model of viral transcription, genome replication, and virus-mediated host-shutoff. Although the broad outlines of FV3 replication have been elucidated, the precise roles of most viral proteins remain unknown. Current studies using knock down (KD) mediated by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (asMO) and small, interfering RNAs (siRNA), knock out (KO) following replacement of the targeted gene with a selectable marker by homologous recombination, ectopic viral gene expression, and recombinant viral proteins have enabled researchers to systematically ascertain replicative- and virulence-related gene functions. In addition, the application of molecular tools to ecological studies is providing novel ways for field biologists to identify potential pathogens, quantify infections, and trace the evolution of ecologically important viral species. In this review, we summarize current studies using not only FV3, but also other iridoviruses infecting ectotherms. As described below, general principles ascertained using FV3 served as a model for the family, and studies utilizing other ranaviruses and megalocytiviruses have confirmed and extended our understanding of iridovirus replication. Collectively, these and future efforts will elucidate molecular events in viral replication, intrinsic and extrinsic factors that contribute to disease outbreaks, and the role of the host immune system in protection from disease.Viruses 10/2011; 3(10):1959-85. · 1.50 Impact Factor