Research Link - 96 Vol - XI (1) March - 2012 28
Research Link - 96, Vol - XI (1), March - 2012, Page No. 28-30
RNI No. MPHIN-2002-7041, ISSN No.-0973-1628
Referred - Journal :
The freshwater tanks, lake and rivers are being over
burden by various discharges from human activities. These
chemicals as consequences of rain water runoff from
agricultural lands, high concentration of many injurious
chemicals often lead to the deterioration of aquatic biota. If
this trend continued, large quantity of pesticidal chemicals
pollute the drinking water and affect the freshwater biota
(Shashi Kant, 1990). Among the group of organic pesticides,
chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, organophosphorus
pesticides and carbamate are highly used. Chlorinated
hydrocarbon group are important and are widely used as
insecticides such as DDT, Eldrin, Linden, Dieldrine,
Endosulfan etc. The organochlorine insecticides are solids
of extremely low water solubility accumulates in lipid tissue
(Annes,1975). The direct discharge of industrial effluents
and runoff comprising versatile chemicals exert their toxic
effect on the living beings, depleting the dissolved oxygen
altering pH, changing the CO2 content and finally affecting
the life cycle of the animals (Dehadri, 1990). Kapur et al.,
(1978) studied the effect of fenitrothin on reproduction of
fish Cyprinus carpio. Singh and Singh (1981) studied the
effect of parathion and endrin on survival, gonadotrpic
potency and ovarian 32p up take from freshwater cat fish,
Heteronustus fossilis. Mathur et al., (1981) observed
vacuolization of liver cell in Ophiocephalus punctatus
exposed to aldrin. Jayantha Rao et al., (1983) studied
histopathological changes due to malathion toxicity on gills
of freshwater teleost, Tilapia mossambica. Nagbhushanam
(1983) studied the toxicity effect of on gonads of freshwater
Effect of Sub-Lethal Treatment of Organophosphorus Pesticide Ekalux (Quinolphos 25% Ec)
On Histopathology of Gonad In Freshwater Lamellibranch Mollusc Lamellidense Corrianus
During Monsoon Season Found Near Sangola, Dist. Solapur
V. S. KAMBLE*, U. V. GAVHANE** & KAMBLE A.B.***
Present work deals with the study of sub-lethal treatment of organophosphorus pesticide
Ekalux (Quinolphos 25%EC) on histopathology of female gonad in freshwater molluscs
Lamellidenes corrianus from Chincholi tank near Sangola, district Solapur (Maharashtra)
during monsoon season. The present investigation on histopathology of the female gonad showed
severe damage to developing gametes and change in shape of vitellogenic oocytes, when exposed
to sub-lethal concentration of organophosphorus pesticide for 15 days during monsoon.
Keywords : Lamellidens corrianus, organophosphorus pesticide, histopathology, quinolphos
prawn, macrobrachium limerrii. Akarte et al., (1983) have
studied the acute toxicity impact of Cythion-malathion on
the histopathology of cerebral and visceral ganglia,
hepatopancreas and gonads from estuarine clam, Katelysia
opima. Muley and Mane (1986) studied the histopathological
changes due to Endosulfan from bivalve, Lamellidens
corrianus and Lamellidens marginalis in hepatopancreas
during three different seasons. Muley and Mane (1986)
studied the histopathological changes from hepatopancreas,
visceral ganglia and gonad of marine water edible clam,
The toxicological effect of organophosphorus
pesticides on vertebrates are manifested by phosphorylation
of AChE (Copage,1972). Toxicity of organophosphorus
pesticides for different species varies with age, weight and
sex of animals (Gill, et,al.;1988, Kumar and Ansari, 1984).
Muley and Mane (1988) studied the variations in gonad due
to Endosulfan toxicity from Lamellidens corrianus and
Lamellidens marginalis during three seasons. Rastogi and
Kulshrestha (1990) studied the histopathological changes
from ovary due to pesticidal stress for fish, Rasboro
In the present investigation an attempt has been made
to study effect of sub-lethal treatment of organophosphorus
pesticide ekalux (Quinolphos 25% EC) on histopathology of
female gonad in freshwater bivalve mollusc Lamellidense
corrianus during monsoon season.
Material & Method :
The freshwater bivalve mollusc, Lamellidense corrianus
measuring about 65-70 mm in length were collected from
*Assistant Professor (Department of Zoology), Sangola College, Sangola Dist. Solapur. (Maharashtra)
**Associate Professor (Department of Zoology), Shri Shivaji Mahavidyalaya, Barshi Dist. Solapur. (Maharashtra)
***Assistant Professor (Department of Zoology), Shri Shivaji Mahavidyalaya, Barshi Dist. Solapur. (Maharashtra)
Research Link - 96 Vol - XI (1) March - 2012 29
Chincholi tank nearby Sangola, Dist. Solapur, Maharashtra,
duringmonsoon season. Soon after the collection the
bivalves were cleaned to remove algal biomass and mud.
The animals were maintained in the plastic container in well
aerated tap water for one week. During acclimation the water
was changed after an interval of 12-13 hrs every day. The
well adjusted bivalve mollusc to the laboratory conditions
were exposed to pre-decided LC50 concentration( 0.0425 ppm)
of commercial grade pesticides, Ekalux (Quinolphos 25 %
EC), manufactured by Sengenta, India Ltd. Churchgate,
Mumbai for 15 days.
For histopathology studies were conducted
simultaneously during all the three seasons from both the
pesticidal treatments during chronic treatment. The different
organs like gill, gonads, hepatopancreas and central ganglia
were pooled out from five animals for all the seasons of
chronic treatment. The tissues of the bivalves belong to
control and LC50 groups were fixed into Aqueous Bovins
solution for overnight and washing was done for 24 hr after
fixation. The tissues were dehydrated using different
alcoholic grades and cleared in xylene. Then the tissues
were transferred to cold embedding followed by hot
embedding at 580C for 1 hr. The paraffin blocks of the tissues
were made. The trimmed blocks were used for sectioning.
The section of six micron thickness was obtained and it was
selected for staining. Double staining was done by using
Delafield's hematoxylene and eosin. Stained sections were
used for microphotography.
In the present investigation due to Ekalux (Quinolphos
25 % EC) chronic treatment for 15 days during monsoon
seasons showed histopathological changes from freshwater
bivalve, Lamellidens corrianus. In control group, during
maturation of a female follicle the lumen was filled with
developing oogonia and primary oocytes. Few follicles
showed primary germ cells along the wall. The nuclei of the
oocytes and ripped gametes were conspicuous but, chronic
stress from experimental group rupture of follicle at some
places, discontinuous germ cells, loss of continuity in the
follicle wall, dislocation of nucleus and nuclei not stained
prominently internal follicular edema in ovary and disrupted
Most of the study of related to pesticide induced
changes in the cytoarchitecture of different organs was
carried out on fishes and other invertebrates, while that of
lamellibranch mollusc were still scanty. (Rao and Mane 1978;
Mane et al,1979; Akarte et al,1986) It is widely recognized
that, growth and reproduction in aquatic animals were
affected due to contamination of toxicants in aquatic media.
The pesticide shows hazardous effect on the inhabitants of
the aquatic species. Eisler (1970) reported the effect of
insecticide on number of eggs deposition in gastropod and
stimulatory effect on fecundity and survival of clam and
gastropods. It is well known fact that pesticides have been
shown to affect at cellular and sub cellular level by destroying
the tissue of animals (Annes, 1975). Muley and Mane (1987)
observed, histopathological changes by cythion Malathion
from lamellibranch mollusc, Lamellidens corrianus and
Lamellidens marginalis from Godavari river, Paithan. They
have observed that the severity of effect of pesticide of both
the species was more at LC 50 than LC0 from gonads. Muley
and Mane (1998) while studying alterations in gonad due to
Endosulfan to freshwater bivalve, Lamellidens marginalis and
Lamellidens corrianus from Godavari river, Paithan observed
similar trend of histopathological changes stated that, the
pesticide stress affect the reproductive stress during
monsoon seasons. Jyoti and Nagendra (1999) while
studying effect of carbaryl on fish, Clarrius batrachus on
gonad observed vacuolization and necrosis in tissue. Similar
might be the case in present investigation where sub-lethal
treatment of Ekalux (Quinolphos 25%EC) for 15 days showed
severe damage to female gonad during monsoon season.
(1) Akarte, S. R.; K. R. Rao and D. A. Kulkarni (1986): Effect
of cythion-malathion 50EC9w/w) on the
estuarine clam, Katelysia opima (gmelin).
Proc. Inter. Conf. Benthic Mar. Organ.
Marathwadan Univ. Aurangabad, India.
(2) Annes, M. A. (1975): Pakistan
J. Zool., 7:135-141.
(3) Ansari, B. A. and Kumar, K.
(1988). Diazinon toxicity effect on protein
and nuclic acid metabolism in the liver of
zebra fish, Brachydania reria
(Cyprinidae). Sci. Total. Environ.
(4) Bagchi, P., S. Chatterjee, A. Ray
and C, Deb9 1990). Effect of quinolphos,
organophosphorus insecticide on
testicular sterioidogenesis in fish, Clarrias
batrachus. Bull. Environ. Contam.Toxicol.
Research Link - 96 Vol - XI (1) March - 2012 30
(5) Dehadri, P. V. (1990): Pollution and Aquaculture. Env.
Poll. And res. of Land and water, 1-14.
(6) Eisler, R.(1970): Acute toxicity of organochlorine and
organophsoporus insecticide to estuarine fishes. U. S. Bur. Sport.
Fish. Wildl. Tech. Pap., 16:1-12.
(7) Gill, T.S.; Pant, J.C. and Pant, J. (1988). Gill, liver and
kidney lesions associated with environmental exposure to carbaryl
and D.M. in the fish, Puntius conchonius (Ham). Bull. Environ.
Contam. Toxicol. 41(1):71-78.
(8) Jayantha Rao K., C.H. Madhu and V. S. Murthy (1983).
Histopathalogy of malathion on gills of freshwater teliost Tilapia
mossambica(Peters).J. Environ. Biol. 4:9-14.
(9) Kapur, K., K. Kaur and H.S. Toor (1978). The effect of
fenitrothin on reproduction of teliost fish, Cyprinus carpio communis
(Linn): A biochemical study. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.,
(10) Mane, U. H. Kachole, M. S. and Pawar, S. S. (1979):
Effect of pesticide and narcotants on bivalve molluscs. Proc. 6th
Europe. Malacol. Cong. Malacology. 19:357-360.
(11) Mane, U. H.; D. V. Muley and S. R. Akarate (1983):
Toxicity of endosulfan to freshwater and estuarine bivalve. Indian
J. Comp. Anim. Physiol. Vol.1 (2): 1-9.
(12) Muley, D. V. and U. H. Mane (1987): Sublethal effect of
mercuric chloride on the tissue composition of bivalve mollusc,
Lamellidens marginalis. Biol. Bull of India. 9(1):31-40.
(13) Muley, D. V. and U. H. Mane (1988): seasonal variations
in the toxicity of Falithion and Lebaycid to freshwater gastropod
Viviparous bengalensis (Lamarck) from Godavari River,
Maharashtra state, India. Ad. Bioss. 7 (1):37-46.
(14) Nagbhushanam, R.; G. Gyannath and R. Sarojini (1983):
Toxicity of three organophosphates compound and their effect on
the gonad of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium lamerri. Indian J.
Comp. Anim. Physiol. 1:71-75.
(15) Rao, M. B. P.; Mane, U. H. (1978): Influence of carbophos
on the survival and oxygen uptake in the Black sea mussel, Mytilus
galloprovincialis (Lam). Gidrobiol. Zuhr (Russian), 14:100-104.
(16) Rastogi, A. and S. K. Kulshreshtha (1990). Effect of
sublethal doses of three pesticides on the ovary of a carp minnow
Rasbora daniconius, Bull. Environ. Cantam. Toxicol., 45, 742-747.
(17) Shashikant (1990): Pollution of aquatic ecosystem . Symp.
Env. Poll. And Res. Of Land and water. Aurangabad. 21-25.
Research Link - 96 Vol - XI (1) March - 2012 31
The importance of experimental chemistry in chemical
education cannot be overstated. Practical reinforced and not
merely support, the theoretical concepts taught in the
classroom. Even a brief perusal of the history of chemistry or
for that matter science in general ,will show that the field was
born and nurtured in the laboratory and not in the mind of an
armchair theorist .Modern day practical teach young students
how to solve a problem and arrive at conclusion . As such
they train students in the art of tackling the real challenges
that lie ahead in life. They also serve as an acid test for
competence in the field of chemistry.
Lab Hazards :
Experimental work is subject to hazards of many kinds, for
every person who working in a laboratory .Laboratories can be
dangerous place in which to work and all users need to be
aware of the potential hazards& to know what to do in case of
emergency. It is important to know where the safety is located
& also draw attention to any specific hazards to be found in
particular experiment. Hazards come from variety of sources.
Chemical Hazards : Due to corrosives, irritant,
inflammable, explosives, toxins.
Physical Hazards : Due to Fire, Pressure & water.
Biological Hazards : Due to Animals, body fluids,
pathogenic& non pathogenic microorganisms.
Electrical & Mechanical Hazards : Due to current,
voltage fluctuation, falling objects.
General lab hazards : Due to slippery floor, Defective
Necessity of lab :
Practical work-in science education has traditionally
Research Link - 96, Vol - XI (1), March - 2012, Page No. 31-32
RNI No. MPHIN-2002-7041, ISSN No.-0973-1628
Referred - Journal :
been used to help students to: identify objects and
phenomena and become familiar with them, learn a fact,
concept, relationship & learn a theory/model At present lab
learning follow the process first the student learns theoretical
concepts by attending lectures and study bibliography and
finally they perform lab work. However this process having
several drawbacks. When student start work they have do
so many mistakes & wastage, because they have insufficient
knowledge about technique& no experience & not to
concentrate on lab technique. They have insufficient time
for satisfactory completion, too much time wastage to perform
these trivial experiments, practical exercise bearing little or
no relationship to earlier or future work. an eco system is a
web of life that contains plant animals ,insects ,algae & many
other living beings, when people remove animals from their
natural habitat to use as study material .it can disturb &
affect all of the life's & eco system. Animal dissection has an
integral part of science it carry so many health problems.
The high cost of laboratory apparatus, limited resources wear
& tear of scientific instrument, defect & error in equipments,
time bound, and fear of accidents restricts the choice of
experiments particularly where the classes are small.
Nevertheless there has been no hesitation in introducing
advanced apparatus and concepts .if student are not given
an opportunity to become familiar with a variety of modern
development & new technique, they will be handicapped in
their latter practice of science.
Newer technology :
The beginning of green chemistry is frequently
considered as a response to the need to reduce the damage
of the environment by man-made materials and the processes
Department Of Chemistry & Botany, S.N.P.G. & Polytechnic College, Khandwa (Madhya Pradesh)
Green Technology In Laboratory
PARVINDER KHANUJA, SHAKUN MISHRA & SAMEER DIXIT
A laboratory especially a chemistry lab is prone to numerous physical, chemical
and biological hazards. It is important therefore to be aware of these hazards; use preplan
personal protective equipment and follow Inherently Safer protocols for Accident
Prevention. This paper is based on green chemistry principle as protecting the environment
is responsibility of everyone. The teaching of green chemistry in lab is the need of the day,
now just we need to change our mind set and applying the concept in laboratory. Because:
we do so much to prepare our students for future, but we are not doing enough to prepare
them for future. Here an idea of virtual laboratory is being discussed as a measure to be
introduced for the benefit of students.
Research Link - 96 Vol - XI (1) March - 2012 32
used to produce them. Green chemistry includes information
concerning safe practices, the use of personal protective
equipment, emergency procedures, use and storage of
chemicals, and the proper methods of waste disposal. This
information is intended to help those in the laboratory
minimize the hazards to themselves and their colleagues.
Today's need is green technology applied in laboratory
.Today's learning requirement centered on real life experience
and here virtual labs offer conductive environment for
learning. The Effectiveness of Actual Laboratories Students
doesn't need to cut up animals to understand basic anatomy
and physiology. Due to Lack of awareness, budgetary issues
and unavailability of resources; it is expected to pick up at a
very fast rate in the coming days.
Why use :
Lab technology is very important in driving experiential
education since the present generation students have access
to the latest technology and are most attracted to game like
solutions. When learning can become as much fun as playing
a game, it can be one of the most natural ways of making
them learn the basic skills needed for personal and social
growth. Beyond gaming, technology can really help students
visualize difficult concepts in science and this can eliminate
the need for rote learning. Virtual lab is good for this situation
where it is not feasible to conduct a real life experiment
because the interaction, exploration & experimentation with
locations, objects & environments that is unavailable, pricey,
dangerous or impossible.
Benefit of Virtual Lab :
The virtual laboratory means using technology to
enhance the learning experience of students in field of
chemistry, physics & biology. In this students learn step by
step instruction, It is designed not only to encourage
students to undertake special work, but to aid them in later
years in the solution of practical problems .It allows students
to make mistakes without fear of not getting the experiment
done right. Also this allow them to study at their own pace
and ability to repeat as necessary. Therefore by using virtual
labs, students can perform experiments to learn step by step
instruction, they also familiar with instrument, & practice
with concept taught in lecture, develop online critical thinking
skills, can repeat experiment for practice or develop
conceptual understanding, save its time &money or
downright dangerous without risk .Virtual lab gives student
more ability to be creative without being rusticated by
resource or safety concerns.
The Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation has
been implemented in schools & colleges so that the students
develop various life skills and 21st century workforce skills
to enable them become employable and effective in their life.
They should be conversant with the technologies in print,
web, video and mobile technologies, which would enable
them to be more efficient in the futuristic economy-an
economy that supports knowledge and creativity.
Acknowledgement : I am grateful to Dr.N.P. Kohle
(zoology department )for their keen interest in my paper.
(1) Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry -:A.I.Vogel,
Tatchell. (2) Standard methods for the examination for water&
waste water by Apha. (3) laboratory practice of organic chemistry
-: Robertson Macmillan Company New York. (4) Internet.