Caritas--caring as an ethical conduct.
ABSTRACT The aim of this theoretical study is to describe and analyze caritas by seeking the primary source for this phenomenon, which is used as a central motive in Eriksson's Caritative Theory. The search for the origin and the essence of caritas by critical analysis will create an opportunity to assimilate new meaning into the practice of caring science. This new meaning, based on interpretation, will also act as a solid base for the creation of future theories within caring science. Although this study does not intend to create a new theory for this domain, an attempt is made to shed light on new understandings to establish a deeper foundation for further discussion. Therefore, the methodological basis used is the hermeneutics phenomenology described by Nygren. The starting points refer to three basic assumptions, the former two of which present the core of caring science as an academic discipline; the latter borrows from philosophical creation theology. Therefore, the path for analyzing caritas and the significance of developing a deeper and meaningful understanding are based on the writing of Eriksson as well as through historical and philosophical sources from Judaism, such as the Bible and the Talmud. The results of this study have introduced a new meaning and created a 'space' for caritas. These results are related to the notion of attitudes, being driven by curiosity and questioning, that link faith and scientific investigation. Above all, these attitudes form a central motive profoundly linked to love. Hence, caritas as an attitude turns the concept of care into a more ethical act. However, these new understandings have given rise to ethical questions that obligate consideration towards further study.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Spiritual dimensions such as hope, meaning in life and self-transcendence have been found to be predictors of successful ageing, life satisfaction and well-being in older individuals. Connectedness and communicating with others have been seen to facilitate hope, meaning in life and self-transcendence among nursing home patients. AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the associations between hope, meaning in life, self-transcendence and nurse-patient interaction in a nursing home population. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional design was employed, collecting data in 44 different Norwegian nursing homes (NHs) from 250 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Approval by all regulatory institutions dealing with research issues in Norway and the Management Unit at the 44 NHs was obtained. A sample of 202 cognitively intact nursing home patients responded to the Herth Hope Index, the Purpose in Life test, the Self-Transcendence Scale and the Nurse-Patient Interaction Scale. A structural equation model (SEM) of the hypothesized relationships between the constructs was tested. RESULTS: The SEM model fit well with the present data. Significant direct relationships of nurse-patient interaction on hope, meaning in life and self-transcendence were displayed. Meaning and the interconnectedness dimension of hope appeared to be particularly dynamic resources, revealing significant influences on all the constructs in the SEM model tested. CONCLUSION: Nurse-patient interaction influences hope, meaning in life and self-transcendence in cognitively intact nursing home patients and might be an important resource in relation to patients' health and global well-being. Thus, care providers are above all fundamental for nursing home patients. Advancing caregivers' interacting and communicating skills might facilitate patients' health and global well-being and inspire professional caregivers as they perform their daily care practices. More research of the effectiveness of such strategies is greatly needed. LIMITATIONS: The SEM model tested comprised 20 variables, indicating a desirable sample size of n = 200, while the present effective sample was n = 187. Also, cross-sectional data do not allow making conclusion on the causality.Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences 03/2013; · 0.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To test the effects of nurse-patient interaction on anxiety and depression among cognitively intact nursing home patients. BACKGROUND: Depression is considered the most frequent mental disorder among the older population. Specifically, the depression rate among nursing home patients is three to four times higher than among community-dwelling older people, and a large overlap of anxiety is found. Therefore, identifying nursing strategies to prevent and decrease anxiety and depression is of great importance for nursing home patients' well-being. Nurse-patient interaction is described as a fundamental resource for meaning in life, dignity and thriving among nursing home patients. DESIGN: The study employed a cross-sectional design. The data were collected in 2008 and 2009 in 44 different nursing homes from 250 nursing home patients who met the inclusion criteria. METHODS: A sample of 202 cognitively intact nursing home patients responded to the Nurse-Patient Interaction Scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A structural equation model of the hypothesised relationships was tested by means of Lisrel 8.8 (Scientific Software International Inc., Lincolnwood, IL, USA). RESULTS: The SEM model tested demonstrated significant direct relationships and total effects of nurse-patient interaction on depression and a mediated influence on anxiety. CONCLUSION: Nurse-patient interaction influences depression, as well as anxiety, mediated by depression. Hence, nurse-patient interaction might be an important resource in relation to patients' mental health. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Nurse-patient interaction is an essential factor of quality of care, perceived by long-term nursing home patients. Facilitating nurses' communicating and interactive skills and competence might prevent and decrease depression and anxiety among cognitively intact nursing home patients.Journal of Clinical Nursing 03/2013; · 1.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AIM: To investigate the associations between nurse-patient interaction and meaning-in-life in a nursing home population. BACKGROUND: Meaning has been found to be a strong individual predictor of successful ageing and life satisfaction as well as an important psychological variable that promotes well-being. Meaning seems to serve as a mediating variable in both psychological and physical health. Connecting and communicating with others have been seen to facilitate meaning-in-life among older individuals. DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study. METHODS: The data were collected in 2008-2009 using the Nurse-Patient Interaction Scale and the Purpose-in-Life test. A total of 250 cognitively intact nursing home patients met the inclusion criteria and 202 (81%) participated. A structural equation model of the hypothesized relationship between nurse-patient interaction and meaning was tested by means of LISREL 8.8. FINDINGS: The structural equation model fit well with the data. A significant direct relationship between nurse-patient interaction and meaning-in-life in cognitively intact nursing home patients was displayed. CONCLUSION: Nurse-patient interaction significantly relates to meaning and purpose-in-life among cognitively intact nursing home patients and might be an important resource in relation to the patient's mental health and global well-being. High-quality nurse-patient interaction and in-house activities aiming to increase patients' meaning might increase psychological and physical health, well-being and psycho-spiritual functioning in this vulnerable population.Journal of Advanced Nursing 06/2013; · 1.53 Impact Factor