The spliceosome as a target of novel antitumour drugs.
ABSTRACT Several bacterial fermentation products and their synthetic derivatives display antitumour activities and bind tightly to components of the spliceosome, which is the complex molecular machinery involved in the removal of introns from mRNA precursors in eukaryotic cells. The drugs alter gene expression, including alternative splicing, of genes that are important for cancer progression. A flurry of recent reports has revealed that genes encoding splicing factors, including the drug target splicing factor 3B subunit 1 (SF3B1), are among the most highly mutated in various haematological malignancies such as chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. These observations highlight the role of splicing factors in cancer and suggest that an understanding of the molecular effects of drugs targeting these proteins could open new perspectives for studies of the spliceosome and its role in cancer progression, and for the development of novel antitumour therapies.
SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of clonal disorders arising from hematopoietic stem cells generally characterized by inefficient hematopoiesis, dysplasia in one or more myeloid cell lineages, and variable degrees of cytopenias. Most MDS patients are diagnosed in their late 60s to early 70s. The estimated incidence of MDS in the United States and in Europe are 4.3 and 1.8 per 100,000 individuals per year, respectively with lower rates reported in some Asian countries and less well estimated in other parts of the world. Evolution to acute myeloid leukemia can occur in 10-15% of MDS patients. Three drugs are currently approved for the treatment of patients with MDS: immunomodulatory agents (lenalidomide), and hypomethylating therapy [HMT (decitabine and 5-azacytidine)]. All patients will eventually lose their response to therapy, and the survival outcome of MDS patients is poor (median survival of 4.5 months) especially for patients who fail (refractory/relapsed) HMT. The only potential curative treatment for MDS is hematopoietic cell transplantation. Genomic/chromosomal instability and various mechanisms contribute to the pathogenesis and prognosis of the disease. High throughput genetic technologies like single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis and next generation sequencing technologies have uncovered novel genetic alterations and increased our knowledge of MDS pathogenesis. We will review various genetic and non-genetic causes that are involved in the pathogenesis of MDS.12/2014; 49(4):216-27. DOI:10.5045/br.2014.49.4.216
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background Modification of splicing by chemotherapeutic drugs has usually been evaluated on a limited number of pre-mRNAs selected for their recognized or potential importance in cell proliferation or apoptosis. However, the pathways linking splicing alterations to the efficiency of cancer therapy remain unclear. Methods Next-generation sequencing was used to analyse the transcriptome of breast carcinoma cells treated by cisplatin. Pharmacological inhibitors, RNA interference, cells deficient in specific signalling pathways, RT-PCR and FACS analysis were used to investigate how the anti-cancer drug cisplatin affected alternative splicing and the cell death pathway. Results We identified 717 splicing events affected by cisplatin, including 245 events involving cassette exons. Gene ontology analysis indicates that cell cycle, mRNA processing and pre-mRNA splicing were the main pathways affected. Importantly, the cisplatin–induced splicing alterations required class I PI3Ks P110β but not components such as ATM, ATR and p53 that are involved in the DNA damage response. The siRNA-mediated depletion of the splicing regulator SRSF4, but not SRSF6, expression abrogated many of the splicing alterations as well as cell death induced by cisplatin. Conclusion Many of the splicing alterations induced by cisplatin are caused by SRSF4 and they contribute to apoptosis in a process requires class I PI3K. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1259-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.BMC Cancer 04/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12885-015-1259-0 · 3.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing is a critical step in the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression, providing significant expansion of the functional proteome of eukaryotic organisms with limited gene numbers. Split eukaryotic genes contain intervening sequences or introns disrupting protein-coding exons, and intron removal occurs by repeated assembly of a large and highly dynamic ribonucleoprotein complex termed the spliceosome, which is composed of five small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles, U1, U2, U4/U6, and U5. Biochemical studies over the past 10 years have allowed the isolation as well as compositional, functional, and structural analysis of splicing complexes at distinct stages along the spliceosome cycle. The average human gene contains eight exons and seven introns, producing an average of three or more alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms. Recent high-throughput sequencing studies indicate that 100% of human genes produce at least two alternative mRNA isoforms. Mechanisms of alternative splicing include RNA-protein interactions of splicing factors with regulatory sites termed silencers or enhancers, RNA-RNA base-pairing interactions, or chromatin-based effects that can change or determine splicing patterns. Disease-causing mutations can often occur in splice sites near intron borders or in exonic or intronic RNA regulatory silencer or enhancer elements, as well as in genes that encode splicing factors. Together, these studies provide mechanistic insights into how spliceosome assembly, dynamics, and catalysis occur; how alternative splicing is regulated and evolves; and how splicing can be disrupted by cis- and trans-acting mutations leading to disease states. These findings make the spliceosome an attractive new target for small-molecule, antisense, and genome-editing therapeutic interventions. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry Volume 84 is June 02, 2015. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.Annual review of biochemistry 03/2015; DOI:10.1146/annurev-biochem-060614-034316 · 26.53 Impact Factor