Reduced hedonic capacity in euthymic bipolar subjects: A trait-like feature?
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to assess hedonic capacity in euthymic bipolar subjects, identifying possible differences compared to remitted unipolar depressed patients and healthy controls. METHODS: 107 subjects with bipolar disorders, 86 with major depressive disorder and 106 healthy controls, homogeneous with respect to demographic characteristics, were enrolled. The following scales were administered: the Snaith-Hamilton pleasure scale (SHAPS), the subscale for 'anhedonia/asociality' of the scale for the assessment of negative symptoms (SANS) and the visual analogue scale (VAS) for hedonic capacity. RESULTS: Scores on SHAPS total, interests and social interactions, SANS 'anhedonia/asociality' and VAS were all significantly higher in affective disorder patients compared to healthy controls. No difference was found between clinical groups. 20.5% (n=22) of bipolar disorder subjects and 24.5% (n=21) of major depressed subjects showed a significant reduction in hedonic capacity (SHAPS total score ≥3), compared to 7.5% (n=8) of healthy controls (χ(2)=12.03; p=.002). LIMITATIONS: Limitations include heterogeneity with respect to pharmacological status and longitudinal course (i.e., 'single' vs. 'recurrent' affective episodes). CONCLUSIONS: The major finding of our study is that euthymic bipolar patients and remitted major depressed patients display residual anhedonic symptoms. This suggests that, in affective disorder patients, altered hedonic capacity could represent an enduring trait and that, possibly, dysfunctions in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying hedonic response and reward processing persist, irrespective of mood state.
SourceAvailable from: Michele Fornaro[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Agomelatine, a melatonergic antidepressant with a rapid onset of action, is one of the most recent drugs in the antidepressant category. Agomelatine’s antidepressant actions are attributed to its sleep-promoting and chronobiotic actions mediated by MT1 and MT2 receptors present in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, as well as to its effects on the blockade of 5-HT2c receptors. Blockade of 5-HT2c receptors causes release of both noradrenaline and dopamine at the fronto-cortical dopaminergic and noradrenergic pathways. The combined actions of agomelatine on MT1/MT2 and 5-HT2c receptors facilitate the resynchronization of altered circadian rhythms and abnormal sleep patterns. Agomelatine appeared to be effective in treating major depression. Moreover, evidence exists that points out a possible efficacy of such drug in the treatment of bipolar depression, anxiety disorders, alcohol dependence, migraines etc. Thus, the aim of this narrative review was to elucidate current evidences on the role of agomelatine in disorders other than major depression.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2015; 16(1):1111-1130. DOI:10.3390/ijms16011111 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose The aims of the study were to evaluate the occurrence of behavioral addictions (BAs) in alcohol use disorder (AUD) subjects and to investigate the role of impulsivity, personality dimensions and craving. Methods 95 AUD outpatients (DSM-5) and 140 homogeneous controls were assessed with diagnostic criteria and specific tests for gambling disorder, compulsive buying, sexual, internet and physical exercise addictions, as well as with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and Temperamental and Character Inventory–Revised (TCI-R). The Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) and Visual Analogue Scale for craving (VASc) were also administered to the AUD sample. Results 28.4% (n = 27) of AUD subjects had at least one BA, as compared to 15% (n = 21) of controls (χ2 = 6.27; p = .014). In AUD subjects, direct correlations between BIS-11 and Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), Internet Addiction Disorder test (IAD), Exercise Addiction Inventory-Short Form (EAI-SF) scores (p < .01), between OCDS obsessive and CBS and VASc and CBS, IAD scores (p < .003), were found. BIS-11 (t = −2.36; p = .020), OCDS obsessive (Z = −4.13; p < .001), OCDS compulsive (Z = −2.12; p = .034) and VASc (Z = −4.94; p < .001) scores were higher in AUD subjects with co-occurring BAs. The occurrence of BAs was associated with higher impulsivity traits (BIS-11 scores; OR = 1.08; p = .012) and higher craving levels (VASc scores; OR = 2.48; p < .001). Conclusions Our findings emphasize a significant rate of co-occurrence of BAs in AUD. High levels of impulsivity and craving for alcohol seem to be associated with other addictive behaviors.Drug and Alcohol Dependence 01/2015; 148. DOI:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.12.028 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have been associated with shared and distinct emotion processing abnormalities. Initial findings indicate that these disorders differ with respect to the domain of emotional intelligence (EI). Individuals with schizophrenia display deficits on performance measures of EI, whereas those with bipolar disorder do not. However, no research has examined patients' subjective beliefs about their own EI (referred to as “perceived EI”). This study examined perceived EI, assessed with the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS), and its clinical and functional correlates in outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 35) or bipolar disorder I (n = 38) and matched healthy controls (n = 35). The TMMS includes three subscales that assess beliefs about one's ability to attend to (Attention to Feelings), understand (Clarity of Feelings), and repair emotions (Mood Repair). Participants in the clinical groups also completed community functioning and symptom assessments. Both clinical groups reported significantly lower perceived EI than controls, but did not differ from each other. Higher total TMMS correlated with higher levels of independent living in the schizophrenia group (r = .36) and better social functioning in the bipolar group (r = .61). In addition, although higher Attention to Feelings scores correlated with greater psychiatric symptoms in the schizophrenia group, higher scores across all subscales correlated with less manic symptoms in the bipolar group. The findings suggest that perceived EI is impaired and related to community functioning in both disorders.Schizophrenia Research 01/2015; 162(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.12.005 · 4.43 Impact Factor