Complex Left Profunda Femoris Vein to Renal Vein Bypass for the Management of Progressive Chronic Iliofemoral Occlusion

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Methodist DeBakey Heart & Vascular Center, The Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX.
Annals of Vascular Surgery (Impact Factor: 1.03). 11/2012; 27(1). DOI: 10.1016/j.avsg.2012.05.018
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Chronic Occlusions of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and iliofemoral veins are long-term sequelae of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) that can lead to postthrombotic syndrome (PTS). Patients may present with a wide spectrum of signs and symptoms, ranging from mild discomfort and swelling to severe venous hypertension and ulcerations. We report a 68-year-old man who had a history of left lower extremity DVT after a laminectomy and who developed PTS with nonhealing ulcers. The patient underwent a cross-pubic femorofemoral venous bypass that failed to improve his clinical status. After unsuccessful endovascular attempts for recanalization of the iliofemoral segment, a profunda femoris to IVC bypass was performed. The symptoms recurred 2 years later. Venography revealed restenosis at the caval anastomosis that did not resolve by endovascular means. A surgical revision was performed, and given the quality of the IVC, a jump bypass was created to the left renal vein. The swelling improved and the ulcers healed completely. Twenty-eight months after the complex reconstructions, he remains ulcer-free with mild edema controlled with stockings. Venous reconstructions remain a viable option for patients with symptomatic and recalcitrant nonmalignant obstruction of the large veins.


Available from: Jose Eduardo Telich, Apr 18, 2015
1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Postthrombotic syndrome is a common sequelae resulting from deep venous thrombosis. The primary interventions are prevention and treatment, both of which many vascular specialists may not always recognize. We review the definition, epidemiology, the basic pathophysiology, and preventative management for postthrombotic syndrome. The current primary medical and interventional treatment modalities to decrease the occurrence of postthrombotic syndrome are also highlighted. Many of these treatments are currently available and simply need to be adhered to, whereas others are a shift in the paradigm, focusing on active thrombus removal.
    Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 02/2011; 53(2):500-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jvs.2010.08.050 · 2.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To identify factors affecting long-term outcome after open surgical reconstructions (OSR) and hybrid reconstructions (HR) for chronic venous obstructions. Retrospective review of clinical data of 60 patients with 64 OSR or HR for chronic obstruction of iliofemoral (IF) veins or inferior vena cava (IVC) between January 1985 and September 2009. Primary end points were patency and clinical outcome. Sixty patients (26 men, mean age 43 years, range 16-81) underwent 64 procedures. Ninety-four percent had leg swelling, 90% had venous claudication, and 31% had active or healed ulcers (CEAP classes: C3 = 30, C4 = 12, C5 = 8, C6 = 12). Fifty-two OSRs included 29 femorofemoral (Palma vein: 25, polytetrafluoroethylene [PTFE]: 4), 17 femoroiliac-inferior vena cava (IVC) (vein: 3, PTFE: 14) and six complex bypasses. Twelve patients had HR, which included endophlebectomy, patch angioplasty, and stenting. Early graft occlusion occurred after 17% of OSR and 33% HR. Discharge patency was 96% after OSR, 92% after HR. No mortality or pulmonary embolism occurred. Five-year primary and secondary patency was 42% (95% confidence interval [CI] 29%-55%) and 59% (CI 43%-72%), respectively. For Palma vein grafts it was 70% and 78%, for femoroiliac and ilio-infrahepatic IVC bypasses it was 63% and 86%, and for femoro-infrahepatic IVC bypasses it was 31% and 57%, respectively. Complex OSRs and hybrid procedures had 28% and 30% 2-year secondary patency, respectively. The only factor that significantly affected graft patency in multivariate analysis was May-Thurner syndrome with associated chronic venous thrombosis. For HR, stenting into the common femoral vein patch vs iliac stents only significantly increased patency. At last follow-up, 60% of the patients had no venous claudication and no or minimal swelling. All ulcers with patent grafts healed but 50% of these recurred. Both OSR and HR are viable options if endovascular procedures fail or are not feasible. Palma vein bypass and femoroiliac or iliocaval PTFE bypasses have excellent outcomes with good symptomatic relief.
    Journal of vascular surgery: official publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter 02/2011; 53(2):383-93. DOI:10.1016/j.jvs.2010.08.086 · 2.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Secondary chronic venous disorders (CVD) usually follow an episode of acute deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Most occluded venous segments recanalize over the first 6 to 12 months after an episode of acute DVT, leading to chronic luminal changes and a combination of partial obstruction and reflux. Such morphological changes produce venous hypertension with the highest levels of ambulatory venous pressure occurring in patients with combined outflow obstruction and distal reflux. The clinical manifestations of secondary CVD, including pain, venous claudication, edema, skin changes, and ulceration are commonly referred to as the post-thrombotic syndrome. Such sequelae are best avoided by early and aggressive treatment of proximal DVT. The diagnostic evaluation of secondary CVD is similar to primary CVD and is based upon duplex ultrasound. However, the definition of hemodynamically significant venous stenosis remains obscure and there are no reliable tests to confirm the presence of such lesions. Diagnosis depends more on anatomic rather than hemodynamic criteria, and IVUS is superior to venography in estimating the morphological degree and extent of iliac vein stenosis. The fundamental role of compression in the treatment of CVD is well recognized. Compliance with compression is essential to heal ulcers and minimize recurrence. The efficacy of various adjuncts to ulcer treatment, including complex wound dressings and medications have been variable. Although superficial venous surgery has not been demonstrated to improve ulcer healing rates, it does decrease ulcer recurrence. Deep venous valve reconstruction is performed in only a few specialized centers, and the results are better for primary than for secondary CVD. Treatment of incompetent perforating veins remains controversial. Although artificial venous valves are promising, most early experimental models have failed. With respect to venous obstruction, iliocaval angioplasty and stenting has emerged as the primary treatment for proximal iliofemoral venous obstruction with surgical bypass assuming a secondary role.
    Journal of Vascular Surgery 01/2008; 46 Suppl S:68S-83S. DOI:10.1016/j.jvs.2007.08.048 · 2.98 Impact Factor