ACR Appropriateness Criteria (R) Pretreatment Staging of Colorectal Cancer
ABSTRACT Because virtually all patients with colonic cancer will undergo some form of surgical therapy, the role of preoperative imaging is directed at determining the presence or absence of synchronous carcinomas or adenomas and local or distant metastases. In contrast, preoperative staging for rectal carcinoma has significant therapeutic implications and will direct the use of radiation therapy, surgical excision, or chemotherapy. CT of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis is recommended for the initial evaluation for the preoperative assessment of patients with colorectal carcinoma. Although the overall accuracy of CT varies directly with the stage of colorectal carcinoma, CT can accurately assess the presence of metastatic disease. MRI using endorectal coils can accurately assess the depth of bowel wall penetration of rectal carcinomas. Phased-array coils provide additional information about lymph node involvement. Adding diffusion-weighted imaging to conventional MRI yields better diagnostic accuracy than conventional MRI alone. Transrectal ultrasound can distinguish layers within the rectal wall and provides accurate assessment of the depth of tumor penetration and perirectal spread, and PET and PET/CT have been shown to alter therapy in almost one-third of patients with advanced primary rectal cancer. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria(®) are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives Optimal management of colon cancer (CC) requires detailed assessment of extent of disease. This study prospectively investigates the diagnostic accuracy of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for staging and detection of recurrence in primary CC. Material and methods PET/CT for preoperative staging was performed in 66 prospectively included patients with primary CC. Diagnostic accuracy for PET/CT and CT was analyzed. In addition to routine follow up, 42 stages I–III CC patients had postoperative PET/CT examinations every 6 months for 2 years. Serological levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), carcinoembryonic antigen, and liberated domain I of urokinase plasminogen activator receptor were analyzed. Results Accuracy for tumor, nodal, and metastases staging by PET/CT were 82% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 70; 91), 66% (CI: 51; 78), and 89% (CI: 79; 96); for CT the accuracy was 77% (CI: 64; 87), 60% (CI: 46; 73), and 69% (CI: 57; 80). Cumulative relapse incidences for stages I–III CC at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months were 7.1% (CI: 0; 15); 14.3% (CI: 4; 25); 19% (CI: 7; 31), and 21.4% (CI: 9; 34). PET/CT diagnosed all relapses detected during the first 2 years. High preoperative TIMP-1 levels were associated with significant hazards toward risk of recurrence and shorter overall survival. Conclusions This study indicates PET/CT as a valuable tool for staging and follow up in CC. TIMP-1 provided prognostic information potentially useful in selection of patients for intensive follow up.Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 11/2013; 49(2). DOI:10.3109/00365521.2013.863967 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), and positron emission tomography (PET) are complementary imaging modalities in the preoperative staging of patients with rectal cancer, and each offers their own individual strengths and weaknesses. MRI is the best available radiologic modality for the local staging of rectal cancers, and can play an important role in accurately distinguishing which patients should receive preoperative chemoradiation prior to total mesorectal excision. Alternatively, both MDCT and PET are considered primary modalities when performing preoperative distant staging, but are limited in their ability to locally stage rectal malignancies. This review details the role of each of these three modalities in rectal cancer staging, and how the three imaging modalities can be used in conjunction.Journal of gastrointestinal oncology 04/2015; 6(2):172-84. DOI:10.3978/j.issn.2078-6891.2014.108
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ABSTRACT: Purpose We investigated whether the initial CT distribution of metastatic disease is predictive of overall survival in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer. Materials and methods A retrospective study of 65 patients (37 males, 28 females, mean age 56, range 28-88 years) with stage IV colorectal cancer was derived from an institutional database. Inclusion criteria required KRAS mutation testing and pretreatment CT examinations to be available (65 abdomen/pelvis, 63 chest). Disease burden was jointly characterized by two radiologists in consensus. Median follow-up was 39 months (range 8-115 months). Survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Univariate analysis showed that stratified site(s) of measurable disease and counts of measurable lesions ≥1 cm in the liver, peritoneum, and retroperitoneum were statistically significant risk factors for overall mortality [univariate HR 8.2 (CI 2.7-25.4) for isolated peritoneal disease, HR 1.11 per 5 lesions (CI 1.05-1.17) for liver lesions, HR 1.15 per lesion (CI 1.05-1.26) for peritoneal lesions, and HR 1.11 (CI 1.03-1.19) for retroperitoneal lymph nodes ≥1 cm in short axis]. The stratified site(s) of disease and counts of measurable liver lesions remained significant in the multivariate model (p Conclusion This study identified site(s) of measurable metastasis and counts of measurable liver lesions as independent predictors of overall survival. These findings may have value for future prognostic assessments once validated in a larger, independent, and potentially prospective cohort.Abdominal Imaging 10/2014; 40(5). DOI:10.1007/s00261-014-0272-0 · 1.73 Impact Factor