Article

Metabolic Regulation in Pluripotent Stem Cells during Reprogramming and Self-Renewal

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.
Cell stem cell (Impact Factor: 22.15). 11/2012; 11(5):589-95. DOI: 10.1016/j.stem.2012.10.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Small, rapidly dividing pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have unique energetic and biosynthetic demands compared with typically larger, quiescent differentiated cells. Shifts between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation with PSC differentiation or reprogramming to pluripotency are accompanied by changes in cell cycle, biomass, metabolite levels, and redox state. PSC and cancer cell metabolism are overtly similar, with metabolite levels influencing epigenetic/genetic programs. Here, we discuss the emerging roles for metabolism in PSC self-renewal, differentiation, and reprogramming.

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    • "Whereas the transcriptional and epigenetic dynamics have been extensively documented (Buganim et al., 2012; O'Malley et al., 2013; Polo et al., 2012; Theunissen and Jaenisch, 2014), temporal changes in metabolic states during the induction of pluripotency remain largely unknown. Distinct from somatic cells, pluripotent stem cells have unique metabolic pathways (Zhang et al., 2012), which influence their cellular behavior and epigenetic status (Lu and Thompson, 2012; Shyh-Chang et al., 2013a, 2013b). Indeed, factors involved in metabolic functions such as mitochondrial proteins are among the first to be upregulated in cells undergoing reprogramming (Hansson et al., 2012). "
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    • "Furthermore, the somatic differentiated cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) through overexpression of a few transcription factors (TFs) or the metabolic switch (Ito and Suda, 2014; Takahashi and Yamanaka, 2006; Zhang et al., 2012). The primary functions of activated oncogenes and inactivated tumor suppressors may be to reprogram cellular metabolism and convert somatic cancer cells into pluripotent tumor-initiating cells (also called cancer stem cells [CSCs]) (Ward and Thompson, 2012; Zhang et al., 2012). Therefore, understanding how adult stem cells (particularly , somatic adult stem cells) are regulated is important for understanding tissue degeneration and tumorigenesis. "
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