Metabolic Regulation in Pluripotent Stem Cells during Reprogramming and Self-Renewal
ABSTRACT Small, rapidly dividing pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have unique energetic and biosynthetic demands compared with typically larger, quiescent differentiated cells. Shifts between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation with PSC differentiation or reprogramming to pluripotency are accompanied by changes in cell cycle, biomass, metabolite levels, and redox state. PSC and cancer cell metabolism are overtly similar, with metabolite levels influencing epigenetic/genetic programs. Here, we discuss the emerging roles for metabolism in PSC self-renewal, differentiation, and reprogramming.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics 10/2012; 1817:S123-S124. DOI:10.1016/j.bbabio.2012.06.332 · 4.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Entamoeba invadens is not the secondarily reduced and simplified eukaryote unrelated to a cenancestor as thought by some protist researchers. On the contrary, E. invadens is a single-celled eukaryote with a complex life cycle comprised of stem cells and stem cell lines. It contains hypoxic and oxygenic life cycle stages revealing to us details about the living conditions of LECA at the time of Unikonts' and Excavata's divergence. At the end of the super group evolution are protists such as Entamoeba and Giardia and metazoans such as Hydra and humans. Stem cells in Entamoeba and humans are controlled by the same basal mechanisms. At the time of super group divergence LECA had an anaerobic metabolism similar to that of Entamoeba; it contains non-aerobic mitochondria, different metabolic pathways using oxygen or not, anti-oxidative defense mechanisms against oxygen and a life cycle organized with a stem cell lineage. LECA evolved in the Proterozoic age from a unique vegetative cell type living in strict hypoxic environments (temporarily protected by a cyst wall) to a more and more complex cell system capable of living and proliferating in a wide range of hypoxic and moderate oxygenic niches. In conditions of alternating oxygen-, nitrogen-and nutrient-cycles LECA developed the characteristics of a true stem cell protolineage and transferred them to protist divergents and early animals. Without this ancestral heritage, protists such as E. invadens would not be able to become pathogens. They would live in a commensal relationship with their host. The metabolic anaerobe LECA is the common cenancestor of all eukaryotic stem cell lineages.
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ABSTRACT: The advent of advanced omics technologies and the application of these techniques to the analysis of extremely limited material have opened the door to the investigation of embryo physiology in a focused, in-depth approach never before possible. The application of noninvasive metabolomic and proteomic platforms to understanding embryo viability permits the characterization of individual embryos in culture. Initial clinical data have highlighted the promise of these technologies for the development of noninvasive embryo selection criteria. In this way, a complex view of embryo function can be compiled and related to embryo development, quality, and outcome. Application of knowledge gained from omics will transform both our understanding of embryo physiology as well as our ability to select viable embryos for transfer in assisted reproductive technology. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.