Acute and second-meal effects of peanuts on glycaemic response and appetite in obese women with high type 2 diabetes risk: a randomised cross-over clinical trial.
ABSTRACT Nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of adding peanuts (whole or peanut butter) on first (0-240 min)- and second (240-490 min)-meal glucose metabolism and selected gut satiety hormone responses, appetite ratings and food intake in obese women with high T2DM risk. A group of fifteen women participated in a randomised cross-over clinical trial in which 42·5 g of whole peanuts without skins (WP), peanut butter (PB) or no peanuts (control) were added to a 75 g available carbohydrate-matched breakfast meal. Postprandial concentrations (0-490 min) of glucose, insulin, NEFA, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), appetitive sensations and food intake were assessed after breakfast treatments and a standard lunch. Postprandial NEFA incremental AUC (IAUC) (0-240 min) and glucose IAUC (240-490 min) responses were lower for the PB breakfast compared with the control breakfast. Insulin concentrations were higher at 120 and 370 min after the PB consumption than after the control consumption. Desire-to-eat ratings were lower, while PYY, GLP-1 and CCK concentrations were higher after the PB intake compared with the control intake. WP led to similar but non-significant effects. The addition of PB to breakfast moderated postprandial glucose and NEFA concentrations, enhanced gut satiety hormone secretion and reduced the desire to eat. The greater bioaccessibility of the lipid component in PB is probably responsible for the observed incremental post-ingestive responses between the nut forms. Inclusion of PB, and probably WP, to breakfast may help to moderate glucose concentrations and appetite in obese women.
Endocrine Practice 12/2014; 20:6-19. DOI:10.4158/EP14490.RA · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Snack foods can contribute a high proportion of energy intake to the diet. Peanuts are a snack food rich in unsaturated fatty acids, protein and fibre which have demonstrated satiety effects and may reduce total energy intake, despite their high energy density. This study examined the effects of consuming Hi-oleic (oleic acid ~75% of total fatty acids) peanuts and regular peanuts (oleic acid ~ 50% and higher in polyunsaturated fatty acids) compared with a high carbohydrate snack (potato crisps) on satiety and subsequent energy intake. Using a triple crossover study design, 24 participants (61±1 years) consumed iso-energetic amounts (56-84g) of Hi-oleic or regular peanuts or (60-90g) potato crisps after an overnight fast. Hunger and satiety were assessed at baseline, 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes following snack consumption using visual analogue scales, after which a cold buffet meal was freely consumed and energy intake measured. The same snack was consumed on 3 subsequent days with energy intake assessed from dietary records. This protocol was repeated weekly with each snack food. Total energy intake was lower following consumption of Hi-oleic and regular peanuts compared with crisps, both acutely during the buffet meal (-21%; p < .001 and -17%; p < .01) and over the 4 days (-11%; p < .001 and -9%; p < .01). Despite these reductions in energy intake, no differences in perceived satiety were observed. The findings suggest peanuts may be a preferred snack food to include in the diet for maintaining a healthy weight.Appetite 07/2014; 82. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2014.07.015 · 2.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background An increased plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentration may favour metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance. The meal composition influences plasma LPS concentrations. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of the acute consumption of a high-fat meal (49% of energy from fat) containing conventional or high-oleic peanuts on post-prandial LPS concentrations and its relationship with lipaemia and insulinaemia in overweight and obese men.Methods The test meal consisted of a shake containing conventional peanuts (CVP; n = 21), high-oleic peanuts (HOP; n = 23) or a control biscuit (CT; n = 21). Blood samples were collected in the fasting state and 1, 2 and 3 h post-prandially. LPS, insulin, lipids and glucose concentrations were assessed.ResultsLPS concentrations were lower in CVP [mean (SE) 0.7 (0.5) EU mL−1] and HOP [1.0 (0.9) EU mL−1] groups compared to CT [1.6 (1.2) EU mL−1] at 3 h post-prandially. Triacylglycerol and insulin concentrations increased in all groups. Triacylglycerol started to increase only after 2 h in the CVP and HOP groups. LPS correlated positively with triacylglycerol. Insulin returned to basal concentrations at 3 h only in the CVP and HOP groups.Conclusions The acute consumption of peanuts delayed the increase in serum triacylglycerol and favoured the quicker return of insulin to basal concentrations, especially in the CVP group. Our results suggest that the consumption of conventional or high-oleic peanuts may help to reduce the risk of endotoxaemia and metabolic disorders.Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 10/2014; DOI:10.1111/jhn.12284 · 2.07 Impact Factor