Acute and second-meal effects of peanuts on glycaemic response and appetite in obese women with high type 2 diabetes risk: a randomised cross-over clinical trial.
ABSTRACT Nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of adding peanuts (whole or peanut butter) on first (0-240 min)- and second (240-490 min)-meal glucose metabolism and selected gut satiety hormone responses, appetite ratings and food intake in obese women with high T2DM risk. A group of fifteen women participated in a randomised cross-over clinical trial in which 42·5 g of whole peanuts without skins (WP), peanut butter (PB) or no peanuts (control) were added to a 75 g available carbohydrate-matched breakfast meal. Postprandial concentrations (0-490 min) of glucose, insulin, NEFA, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), appetitive sensations and food intake were assessed after breakfast treatments and a standard lunch. Postprandial NEFA incremental AUC (IAUC) (0-240 min) and glucose IAUC (240-490 min) responses were lower for the PB breakfast compared with the control breakfast. Insulin concentrations were higher at 120 and 370 min after the PB consumption than after the control consumption. Desire-to-eat ratings were lower, while PYY, GLP-1 and CCK concentrations were higher after the PB intake compared with the control intake. WP led to similar but non-significant effects. The addition of PB to breakfast moderated postprandial glucose and NEFA concentrations, enhanced gut satiety hormone secretion and reduced the desire to eat. The greater bioaccessibility of the lipid component in PB is probably responsible for the observed incremental post-ingestive responses between the nut forms. Inclusion of PB, and probably WP, to breakfast may help to moderate glucose concentrations and appetite in obese women.
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ABSTRACT: Snack foods can contribute a high proportion of energy intake to the diet. Peanuts are a snack food rich in unsaturated fatty acids, protein and fibre which have demonstrated satiety effects and may reduce total energy intake, despite their high energy density. This study examined the effects of consuming Hi-oleic (oleic acid ~75% of total fatty acids) peanuts and regular peanuts (oleic acid ~ 50% and higher in polyunsaturated fatty acids) compared with a high carbohydrate snack (potato crisps) on satiety and subsequent energy intake. Using a triple crossover study design, 24 participants (61±1 years) consumed iso-energetic amounts (56-84g) of Hi-oleic or regular peanuts or (60-90g) potato crisps after an overnight fast. Hunger and satiety were assessed at baseline, 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes following snack consumption using visual analogue scales, after which a cold buffet meal was freely consumed and energy intake measured. The same snack was consumed on 3 subsequent days with energy intake assessed from dietary records. This protocol was repeated weekly with each snack food. Total energy intake was lower following consumption of Hi-oleic and regular peanuts compared with crisps, both acutely during the buffet meal (-21%; p < .001 and -17%; p < .01) and over the 4 days (-11%; p < .001 and -9%; p < .01). Despite these reductions in energy intake, no differences in perceived satiety were observed. The findings suggest peanuts may be a preferred snack food to include in the diet for maintaining a healthy weight.Appetite 07/2014; 82. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2014.07.015 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic peanut consumption is associated with health benefits. To encourage consumption, peanuts are marketed with various flavorings, but questions have been raised as to whether seasonings offset the benefits of peanuts alone. This study sought to determine whether flavorings on peanuts affect health benefits over 12 wk. In a randomized, parallel-group trial, 151 participants received 42 g peanuts/d as 14-g servings of 3 different flavors (n = 50) or a single flavor (n = 25-26/group). Anthropometric indexes, blood pressure, and heart rate were measured biweekly. Cardiovascular disease risk factors (serum lipids, insulin, glucose, and cortisol) were assessed monthly. No single added flavor differentially altered body weight, body fat, body mass index, heart rate, or blood indexes in the total sample. Participants at greater risk of cardiovascular disease had significantly greater mean (±SE) reductions in diastolic blood pressure (-5.0 ± 1.7 mm Hg compared with -0.7 ± 0.6 mm Hg), cholesterol (-12.1 ± 8.5 mg/dL compared with +5.6 ± 2.0 mg/dL), and triglycerides (-31.7 ± 15.8 mg/dL compared with +2.3 ± 3.0 mg/dL) (n = 27, 24, and 15 respectively; P < 0.01) than did those at lower risk, who did not have significantly different cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations. Consumption of a variety of flavors led to greater weight gain (0.9 ± 0.3 kg) than did individual flavors alone (0.5 ± 0.2 kg) (P < 0.05), but increases in fat and lean masses were not significant. Regardless of flavoring, peanut consumption offered significant benefits to participants with elevated serum lipids and blood pressure. Sensory variety led to a small, but significant, increase in body weight in comparison with ingestion of a single flavor but no change in fat mass. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01886326.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 12/2013; 99(3). DOI:10.3945/ajcn.113.069401 · 6.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tree nuts and peanuts are good sources of many nutrients and antioxidants, but they are also energy dense. The latter often limits intake because of concerns about their possible contribution to positive energy balance. However, evidence to date suggests that nuts are not associated with predicted weight gain. This is largely due to their high satiety value, leading to strong compensatory dietary responses, inefficiency in absorption of the energy they contain, a possible increment in resting energy expenditure, and an augmentation of fat oxidation. Preliminary evidence suggests that these properties are especially evident when they are consumed as snacks.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 06/2014; DOI:10.3945/ajcn.113.071456 · 6.92 Impact Factor