Acute and second-meal effects of peanuts on glycaemic response and appetite in obese women with high type 2 diabetes risk: A randomised cross-over clinical trial

Department of Nutrition and Health, Federal University of Viçosa, Avenida PH Rolfs, s/n, Viçosa, Minas Gerais 36570-000, Brazil.
The British journal of nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.45). 11/2012; 109(11):1-9. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114512004217
Source: PubMed


Nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of adding peanuts (whole or peanut butter) on first (0-240 min)- and second (240-490 min)-meal glucose metabolism and selected gut satiety hormone responses, appetite ratings and food intake in obese women with high T2DM risk. A group of fifteen women participated in a randomised cross-over clinical trial in which 42·5 g of whole peanuts without skins (WP), peanut butter (PB) or no peanuts (control) were added to a 75 g available carbohydrate-matched breakfast meal. Postprandial concentrations (0-490 min) of glucose, insulin, NEFA, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), appetitive sensations and food intake were assessed after breakfast treatments and a standard lunch. Postprandial NEFA incremental AUC (IAUC) (0-240 min) and glucose IAUC (240-490 min) responses were lower for the PB breakfast compared with the control breakfast. Insulin concentrations were higher at 120 and 370 min after the PB consumption than after the control consumption. Desire-to-eat ratings were lower, while PYY, GLP-1 and CCK concentrations were higher after the PB intake compared with the control intake. WP led to similar but non-significant effects. The addition of PB to breakfast moderated postprandial glucose and NEFA concentrations, enhanced gut satiety hormone secretion and reduced the desire to eat. The greater bioaccessibility of the lipid component in PB is probably responsible for the observed incremental post-ingestive responses between the nut forms. Inclusion of PB, and probably WP, to breakfast may help to moderate glucose concentrations and appetite in obese women.

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    • "Current evidence indicates that acute consumption of peanuts and tree nuts can suppress appetite. Ground walnuts (48 g), peanuts or peanut butter (43 g), almonds or almond butter (43 g) added to breakfast meals have been shown to increase satiety compared with control breakfasts (Brennan, Mantzoros, Sweeney, & Liu, 2010; Mori, Considine, & Mattes, 2011; Reis et al., 2013). In the walnut study, the protein content of the walnut breakfast was three times higher and the fibre was one and a half times higher than the control breakfast which may account for the increased satiety. "
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