Imaging Prostate Cancer
ABSTRACT This article reviews the anatomy of the prostate gland, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, and the role MR imaging in the setting of prostate cancer. Sequences discussed include T2-weighted MR imaging, proton ((1)H) MR spectroscopic imaging, diffusion-weighted MR imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. MR imaging can be applied as an adjuvant tool to establish the diagnosis, localize, determine the extent, and estimate the aggressiveness of prostate cancers. The role of transrectal ultrasonography, computed tomography, and radionuclide scans is also briefly discussed.
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ABSTRACT: We have previously reported the polyamine uptake kinetics in various prostate and non-prostate cancer cell lines, concluding that the prostate cancer cell lines took up and accumulated polyamines at higher levels than non-prostate cell lines, with a view to their use as PET agents. The objective of the present study was to assess their in vivo accumulation in a rat prostate tumor model. A comparative biodistribution study of the polyamines was conducted in AT3B-1 prostate tumors in male Copenhagen rats to determine which of the polyamines show preferential accumulation in the tumor. Tissue samples were collected one hour post administration of the polyamines (i.v.), and the radioactivity of the samples was measured by first combusting the tissue samples in a biological oxidizer and then assaying the trapped 14CO2 in a liquid scintillation counter. Putrescine exhibited the highest tumor accumulation followed by ornithine (4.1% and 1.8% of injected dose/g of the tumor respectively). The tumor-to-blood ratio was highest with putrescine followed by spermidine (18.7 and 12.9 respectively) and the order of tumor-to-normal prostate accumulation ratio was putrescine>ornithine>spermine>spermidine. The results indicated preferential accumulation of putrescine and ornithine in the prostate tumor.In vivo (Athens, Greece) 01/2007; 21(5):823-8. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma (DCa) is an aggressive variant. The purpose of this study was to determine if T2 signal intensity (SI) differs from conventional adenocarcinoma (CCa). A retrospective study of patients who underwent preoperative MRI and prostatectomy between 2009 and 2012 was performed. T2 SI ratios (SIR) for tumour (T) to obturator internus muscle (M) and normal peripheral zone (PZ) were compared. Two radiologists evaluated the central gland/PZ to detect tumours and compared diagnostic accuracy. T2 SIR for DCa were 3.60 (T/M), 0.66 (T/PZ); 2.68 (T/M), 0.47 (T/PZ) for Gleason 9; 2.50 (T/M), 0.47 (T/PZ) for Gleason 7/8 and 3.95 (T/M), 0.73 (T/PZ) for Gleason 6 tumours. There was a difference in T2 T/M and T/PZ SIR between DCa and Gleason 9 (p = 0.003, p = 0.004) and Gleason 7/8 (p = 0.006, p = 0.002), but no difference in SIR between DCa and Gleason 6 tumours. The sensitivity for tumour detection was 0-27 % for DCa, 64-82 % for Gleason 9, 44-88 % for Gleason 7-8 and 0-20 % for Gleason 6. There was a difference in the sensitivity of detecting Gleason 9 and 7/8 tumours when compared to DCa (p = 0.004, p = 0.001). DCa resembles Gleason score 6 tumour at T2-weighted MRI, which underestimates tumour grade and renders the tumour occult. • Prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma is aggressive, resembling endometrial carcinoma at histopathology. • Prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma resembles Gleason score 6 tumour at T2-weighted MRI. • MRI grading may underestimate ductal adenocarcinoma based on increased T2 signal.European Radiology 04/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00330-014-3150-9 · 4.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common non-cutaneous malignancy among men in the United States and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) has gained recent popularity to characterize PCa. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging has the potential to aid PCa diagnosis and management by using tissue stiffness to evaluate prostate zonal anatomy and lesions. MR and B-mode/ARFI in vivo imaging datasets were compared with one another and with gross pathology measurements made immediately after radical prostatectomy. Images were manually segmented in 3D Slicer to delineate the central gland (CG) and prostate capsule, and 3D models were rendered to evaluate zonal anatomy dimensions and volumes. Both imaging modalities showed good correlation between estimated organ volume and gross pathologic weights. Ultrasound and MR total prostate volumes were well correlated (R (2) = 0.77), but B-mode images yielded prostate volumes that were larger (16.82% ± 22.45%) than MR images, due to overestimation of the lateral dimension (18.4% ± 13.9%), with less significant differences in the other dimensions (7.4% ± 17.6%, anterior-to-posterior, and -10.8% ± 13.9%, apex-to-base). ARFI and MR CG volumes were also well correlated (R (2) = 0.85). CG volume differences were attributed to ARFI underestimation of the apex-to-base axis (-28.8% ± 9.4%) and ARFI overestimation of the lateral dimension (21.5% ± 14.3%). B-mode/ARFI imaging yielded prostate volumes and dimensions that were well correlated with MR T2-weighted image (T2WI) estimates, with biases in the lateral dimension due to poor contrast caused by extraprostatic fat. B-mode combined with ARFI imaging is a promising low-cost, portable, real-time modality that can complement mpMRI for PCa diagnosis, treatment planning, and management.Ultrasonic Imaging 07/2014; 37(1). DOI:10.1177/0161734614542177 · 1.16 Impact Factor