Biochemical characterization of human and murine isoforms of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE).
ABSTRACT The bifunctional enzyme UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE) is the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of sialic acids, terminal components of glycoconjugates associated with a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Different protein isoforms of human and mouse GNE, deriving from splice variants, were predicted recently: GNE1 represents the GNE protein described in several studies before, GNE2 and GNE3 are proteins with extended and deleted N-termini, respectively. hGNE2, recombinantly expressed in insect and mamalian cells, displayed selective reduction of UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase activity by the loss of its tetrameric state, which is essential for full enzyme activity. hGNE3, which had to be expressed in Escherichia coli, only possessed kinase activity, whereas mGNE1 and mGNE2 showed no significant differences. Our data therefore suggest a role of GNE1 in basic supply of cells with sialic acids, whereas GNE2 and GNE3 may have a function in fine-tuning of the sialic acid pathway.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Stefan O Reinke, Mar 09, 2015
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ABSTRACT: The key enzyme for the biosynthesis of N-acetylneuraminic acid, from which all other sialic acids are formed, is the bifunctional enzyme UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE). GNE is a highly conserved protein found throughout the animal kingdom. Its highest expression is seen in the liver and placenta. GNE is regulated by a variety of biochemical means, including tetramerization promoted by the substrate UDP-GlcNAc, phosphorylation by protein kinase C and feedback inhibition by CMP-Neu5Ac, which is defect in the human disease sialuria. GNE knock-out in mice leads to embryonic lethality, emphasizing the crucial role of this key enzyme for sialic acid biosynthesis. The metabolic capacity to synthesize sialic acid and CMP-sialic acid upon ManNAc loads is amazingly high. An additional characteristic of GNE is its interaction with proteins involved in the regulation of development, which might play a crucial role in the hereditary inclusion body myopathy. Due to the importance of increased concentrations of tumor-surface sialic acid, first attempts to find inhibitors of GNE have been successful.Biological Chemistry 06/2009; 390(7):591-9. DOI:10.1515/BC.2009.073 · 2.69 Impact Factor
Conference Paper: Off-axis circle criteria for Lur'e systems with interval plants[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Considerable attention has been paid recently to absolute stability property of Lur'e systems involving interval plants and to date several theorems are available for checking the stability. This paper presents some more results that join in these line of researches. Namely, a method is proposed to check the absolute stability of Lur'e systems with interval plants and monotonic nonlinearities via an off-axis circle criterion. The nonlinearities are those whose incremental characteristics lies in a sector. As in the previous work, it is shown that only sixteen systems corresponding to extreme plants suffices need to be checked. An example is provided to illustrate the applicability of the resultsDecision and Control, 1994., Proceedings of the 33rd IEEE Conference on; 01/1995
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ABSTRACT: UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase/ManNAc 6-kinase, GNE, is a bi-functional enzyme that plays a key role in sialic acid biosynthesis. Mutations of the GNE protein cause sialurea or autosomal recessive inclusion body myopathy/Nonaka myopathy. GNE is the only human protein that contains a kinase domain belonging to the ROK (repressor, ORF, kinase) family. We solved the structure of the GNE kinase domain in the ligand-free state. The protein exists predominantly as a dimer in solution, with small populations of monomer and higher-order oligomer in equilibrium with the dimer. Crystal packing analysis reveals the existence of a crystallographic hexamer, and that the kinase domain dimerizes through the C-lobe subdomain. Mapping of disease-related missense mutations onto the kinase domain structure revealed that the mutation sites could be classified into four different groups based on the location - dimer interface, interlobar helices, protein surface, or within other secondary structural elements. The crystal structure of the kinase domain of GNE provides a structural basis for understanding disease-causing mutations and a model of hexameric wild type full length enzyme. This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the web plugin are available in Text S1.PLoS ONE 10/2009; 4(10):e7165. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0007165 · 3.53 Impact Factor