Sphingolipids containing 2-hydroxylated fatty acids are among the most abundant lipid components of the myelin sheath and therefore are thought to play an important role in formation and function of myelin. To prove this hypothesis, we generated mice lacking a functional fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) gene. FA2H-deficient (FA2H(-/-)) mice lacked 2-hydroxylated sphingolipids in the brain and in peripheral nerves. In contrast, nonhydroxylated galactosylceramide was increased in FA2H(-/-) mice. However, oligodendrocyte differentiation examined by in situ hybridization with cRNA probes for proteolipid protein and PDGFalpha receptor and the time course of myelin formation were not altered in FA2H(-/-) mice compared with wild-type littermates. Nerve conduction velocity measurements of sciatic nerves revealed no significant differences between FA2H(-/-) and wild-type mice. Moreover, myelin of FA2H(-/-) mice up to 5 months of age appeared normal at the ultrastructural level, in the CNS and peripheral nervous system. Myelin thickness and g-ratios were normal in FA2H(-/-) mice. Aged (18-month-old) FA2H(-/-) mice, however, exhibited scattered axonal and myelin sheath degeneration in the spinal cord and an even more pronounced loss of stainability of myelin sheaths in sciatic nerves. These results show that structurally and functionally normal myelin can be formed in the absence of 2-hydroxylated sphingolipids but that its long-term maintenance is strikingly impaired. Because axon degeneration appear to start rather early with respect to myelin degenerations, these lipids might be required for glial support of axon function.
"The additional deletion of PLP in these mutants substantially aggravates the axonal demise, but not myelin defects (Edgar et al., 2009). Finally, grossly normal myelin can be formed in the absence of enzymes important for synthesis of specific myelin lipids, but surprisingly this results in axon degeneration (Sheikh et al., 1999; Zoller et al., 2008). The mechanisms of how absence of these myelin proteins and lipids causes axonal degeneration have not been identified, but biochemical screening studies suggest that some of these proteins may facilitate the transport of trophic substances from OLGs that could be important for axonal integrity (Werner et al., 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long axons and their enwrapping glia (EG; Schwann cells (SCs) and oligodendrocytes (OLGs)) form a unique compound structure that serves as conduit for transport of electric and chemical information in the nervous system. The peculiar cytoarchitecture over an enormous length as well as its substantial energetic requirements make this conduit particularly susceptible to detrimental alterations. Degeneration of long axons independent of neuronal cell bodies is observed comparatively early in a range of neurodegenerative conditions as a consequence of abnormalities in SCs and OLGs . This leads to the most relevant disease symptoms and highlights the critical role that these glia have for axon integrity, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The quest to understand why and how axons degenerate is now a crucial frontier in disease-oriented research. This challenge is most likely to lead to significant progress if the inextricable link between axons and their flanking glia in pathological situations is recognized. In this review I compile recent advances in our understanding of the molecular programs governing axon degeneration, and mechanisms of EG's non-cell autonomous impact on axon-integrity. A particular focus is placed on emerging evidence suggesting that EG nurture long axons by virtue of their intimate association, release of trophic substances, and neurometabolic coupling. The correction of defects in these functions has the potential to stabilize axons in a variety of neuronal diseases in the peripheral nervous system and central nervous system (PNS and CNS).
"V. Kota, H. Hama / Advances in Biological Regulation 54 (2014) 223–230 225 indicate that 2 0 -hydroxy GalCer is dispensable for the myelination process but critical for the long-term stability of myelin. A timely report on Fa2h knockout mice corroborated the findings in FA2H deficiency (Zoller et al., 2008). Myelin in Fa2h knockout mice were devoid of 2 0 -hydroxy GalCer. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ceramide is a precursor of complex sphingolipids and also plays important roles in cell signaling. With the advances in lipid analytical technologies, the structural diversity of ceramide species have become evident, and the complexity of cellular metabolism and function associated with distinct ceramide species is beginning to be revealed. One of the common structural variations of ceramide is 2'-hydroxylation of the N-acyl chain. Fatty acid 2-hydroxylase (FA2H) is one of the enzymes that introduce the hydroxyl group during de novo synthesis of ceramide. FA2H is essential for the normal functioning of the nervous system, as evidenced by demyelinating disorder associated with FA2H mutations in humans and mice. Studies of Fa2h mutant mice indicate that lack of 2'-hydroxy galactosylceramide in the myelin membrane results in loss of long-term stability of myelin and eventual demyelination. FA2H also regulates differentiation of various cell types (epidermal keratinocytes, schwannoma cells, adipocytes). When provided exogenously, ceramide induces apoptosis in many cell types. Interestingly, the effective concentration of 2'-hydroxy ceramide that induces apoptosis is significantly lower compared to non-hydroxy ceramide, and cells die much more rapidly, suggesting that 2'-hydroxy ceramide can mediate proapoptotic signaling distinct from non-hydroxy ceramide. Collectively, current evidence clearly shows that 2'-hydroxy ceramide and 2'-hydroxy complex sphingolipids have unique functions in membrane homeostasis and cell signaling that could not be substituted by non-hydroxy counterparts.
"On the other hand the fa2h−/− mice with intact CGT showed absence of 2-OH galactosylceramide and sulfatide in normal myelin.48 However, myelin sheath degeneration was observed with aging.48,55 These studies of different murine knockout models deprived of specific myelin sphingolipids demonstrate that myelin biogenesis in the nervous system remains intact, likely due to the redundancies of these myelin components. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder caused by the deficiency of arylsulfatase A (ASA), resulting in impaired degradation of sulfatide, an essential sphingolipid of myelin. The clinical manifestations of MLD are characterized by progressive demyelination and subsequent neurological symptoms resulting in severe debilitation. The availability of therapeutic options for treating MLD is limited but expanding with a number of early stage clinical trials already in progress. In the development of therapeutic approaches for MLD, scientists have been facing a number of challenges including blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration, safety issues concerning therapies targeting the central nervous system, uncertainty regarding the ideal timing for intervention in the disease course, and the lack of more in-depth understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of MLD. Here, we discuss the current status of the different approaches to developing therapies for MLD. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used to treat MLD patients, utilizing both umbilical cord blood and bone marrow sources. Intrathecal enzyme replacement therapy and gene therapies, administered locally into the brain or by generating genetically modified hematopoietic stem cells, are emerging as novel strategies. In pre-clinical studies, different cell delivery systems including microencapsulated cells or selectively neural cells have shown encouraging results. Small molecules that are more likely to cross the BBB can be used as enzyme enhancers of diverse ASA mutants, either as pharmacological chaperones, or proteostasis regulators. Specific small molecules may also be used to reduce the biosynthesis of sulfatides, or target different affected downstream pathways secondary to the primary ASA deficiency. Given the progressive neurodegenerative aspects of MLD, also seen in other lysosomal diseases, current and future therapeutic strategies will be complementary, whether used in combination or separately at specific stages of the disease course, to produce better outcomes for patients afflicted with this devastating inherited disorder.
Drug Design, Development and Therapy 08/2013; 7:729-45. DOI:10.2147/DDDT.S15467 · 3.03 Impact Factor
Sung Il Park, Daniel S Brenner, Gunchul Shin, Clinton D Morgan, Bryan A Copits, Ha Uk Chung, Melanie Y Pullen, Kyung Nim Noh, Steve Davidson, Soong Ju Oh, [...], Jeong Sook Ha, Renxiao Xu, Taisong Pan, Tae-Il Kim, Yonggang Huang, Michael C Montana, Judith P Golden, Michael R Bruchas, Robert W Gereau, John A Rogers
Yu-Ming Chen, Ruo-Wu Shen, Bei Zhang, Wei-Ning Zhang
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