The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19
ABSTRACT Chromosome 19 has the highest gene density of all human chromosomes, more than double the genome-wide average. The large clustered gene families, corresponding high G + C content, CpG islands and density of repetitive DNA indicate a chromosome rich in biological and evolutionary significance. Here we describe 55.8 million base pairs of highly accurate finished sequence representing 99.9% of the euchromatin portion of the chromosome. Manual curation of gene loci reveals 1,461 protein-coding genes and 321 pseudogenes. Among these are genes directly implicated in mendelian disorders, including familial hypercholesterolaemia and insulin-resistant diabetes. Nearly one-quarter of these genes belong to tandemly arranged families, encompassing more than 25% of the chromosome. Comparative analyses show a fascinating picture of conservation and divergence, revealing large blocks of gene orthology with rodents, scattered regions with more recent gene family expansions and deletions, and segments of coding and non-coding conservation with the distant fish species Takifugu.
- SourceAvailable from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Article: Human-mouse alignments with BLASTZ.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Mouse Genome Analysis Consortium aligned the human and mouse genome sequences for a variety of purposes, using alignment programs that suited the various needs. For investigating issues regarding genome evolution, a particularly sensitive method was needed to permit alignment of a large proportion of the neutrally evolving regions. We selected a program called BLASTZ, an independent implementation of the Gapped BLAST algorithm specifically designed for aligning two long genomic sequences. BLASTZ was subsequently modified, both to attain efficiency adequate for aligning entire mammalian genomes and to increase its sensitivity. This work describes BLASTZ, its modifications, the hardware environment on which we run it, and several empirical studies to validate its results.Genome Research 02/2003; 13(1):103-7. · 14.40 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Phenotypic variation among organisms is central to evolutionary adaptations underlying natural and artificial selection, and also determines individual susceptibility to common diseases. These types of complex traits pose special challenges for genetic analysis because of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, genetic heterogeneity, low penetrance, and limited statistical power. Emerging genome resources and technologies are enabling systematic identification of genes underlying these complex traits. We propose standards for proof of gene discovery in complex traits and evaluate the nature of the genes identified to date. These proof-of-concept studies demonstrate the insights that can be expected from the accelerating pace of gene discovery in this field.Science 01/2003; 298(5602):2345-9. · 31.20 Impact Factor
Article: The BLAST-like alignment tool