Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1759, USA.
Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) evidence an array of structural brain abnormalities and neurocognitive deficits. Furthermore, previous research suggests that deficits in executive functioning (EF) may be associated with significant difficulties in the formation of positive peer relationships in this population. The purpose of the current study was to examine the role of EF as a predictor of treatment response to a controlled social skills intervention for children with FASDs. A total of 100 children between the ages of 6 and 12 received Children's Friendship Training (CFT). Prior to treatment, parents completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF). Treatment outcome was measured using parent report on the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS). The results demonstrated that behavioral regulation as measured on the BRIEF predicted the effectiveness of CFT for children with FASDs, regardless of general intellectual functioning. Specifically, the ability to control impulses, solve problems flexibly, and monitor emotional responses significantly predicted improvement in social skills and reduction in problem behaviors following CFT.
"The simpler social behavior and generation interval of rodents make them useful models for determining how social context influences the effects of developmental alcohol exposure (Kelly et al. 2009). Developing a better understanding of the specific effects from varying social interactions and from environmental enrichment may have important implications for the treatment of children with FASD who consistently are characterized as having poor social skills (Kelly et al. 2009; O’Connor et al. 2006; Schonfeld et al. 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Considerable efforts to educate women not to abuse alcohol during pregnancy have failed to reduce the incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome. Therefore, other approaches to limit the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure are under consideration, including the development of prevention programs and interventions. For these strategies to be as successful as possible, it also is important to improve methods for identifying affected children. The use of animal models in prenatal alcohol exposure research is critical because of the practical and ethical limitations of using human subjects for such studies. This article reviews the use of animal models in three areas of research: addressing basic questions about alcohol exposure during development; improving the identification of affected individuals; and developing approaches to reduce the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure. The various animal-model systems that have been used to study fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, each with their own specific strengths, have provided new findings that have been successfully extrapolated to human subjects, resulting in advancement of the research field and our understanding of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.
Alcohol research & health: the journal of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism 03/2011; 34(1):92-8. · 0.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By using parallel correlation receivers or code-matched filters,
the acquisition time of direct-sequence spread-spectrum waveforms can be
significantly reduced for any application where a wide code-uncertainty
range must be searched. The author discusses parallel acquisition
schemes that allow multiple code-phase offsets to be examined at each
test. In many applications the presence of data modulation and unknown
Doppler offsets must be accounted for in the acquisition process. The
tradeoffs between noncoherent combining loss, data modulation effects,
and Doppler losses often force the code-uncertainty region to be divided
into subintervals, greatly influencing how much parallelism is required
in the acquisition scheme. Three detection schemes are examined for use
in code-matched, filter-based PN (pseudonoise) receivers that must
operate at low signal-to-noise ratios and where the code uncertainty is
divided into one or more subintervals. Gaussian approximations, found to
be extremely accurate when a large noncoherent accumulation period is
required, have been used for easy comparison of the three schemes. The
results show that no one approach is optimum for all conditions, and the
detection choice depends strongly on the received
E <sub>s</sub>/ N <sub>0</sub> and the number of
subintervals that must be searched
Military Communications Conference, 1989. MILCOM '89. Conference Record. Bridging the Gap. Interoperability, Survivability, Security., 1989 IEEE; 11/1989
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Animal models of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) have been used to demonstrate the specificity of alcohol's teratogenic effects and some of the underlying changes in the central nervous system (CNS) and, more recently, to explore ways to ameliorate the effects of alcohol. The main point of this review is to highlight research findings from the animal literature which point to the impact of the social context or social behavior on the effect(s) of alcohol exposure during development, and also to point to research questions about the social environment and effects of prenatal alcohol exposure that remain to be answered. Alcohol exposure during early development alters maternal responding to the exposed pup in a variety of ways and the alteration in maternal responding could alter later stress responsivity and adult maternal and social behavior of the exposed offspring. Environmental enrichment and voluntary exercise have been shown to ameliorate some of alcohol's impact during development, but the roles of enhanced social interactions in the case of enrichment and of social housing during voluntary exercise need to be more fully delineated. Similarly, the role of social context across the lifespan, such as social housing, social experiences, and contact with siblings, needs further study. Because of findings that alcohol during development alters DNA methylation patterns and that there are alterations in the maternal care of the alcohol-exposed offspring, epigenetic effects and their relationship to social behavior in animal models of FASD are likely to become a fruitful area of research. Because of the simpler social behavior and the short lifespan of rodents, animal models of FASD can be useful in determining how the social context impacts the effects of alcohol exposure during development.
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