Central role of Sp1-regulated CD39 in hypoxia/ischemia protection

Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO, USA.
Blood (Impact Factor: 10.45). 10/2008; 113(1):224-32. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2008-06-165746
Source: PubMed


Hypoxia is common to several inflammatory diseases, where multiple cell types release adenine-nucleotides (particularly adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate). Adenosine triphosphate/adenosine diphosphate is metabolized to adenosine through a 2-step enzymatic reaction initiated by CD39 (ectonucleoside-triphosphate-diphosphohydrolase-1). Thus, extracellular adenosine becomes available to regulate multiple inflammatory endpoints. Here, we hypothesized that hypoxia transcriptionally up-regulates CD39 expression. Initial studies revealed hypoxia-dependent increases in CD39 mRNA and immunoreactivity on endothelia. Examination of the human CD39 gene promoter identified a region important in hypoxia inducibility. Multiple levels of analysis, including site-directed mutagenesis, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and inhibition by antisense, revealed a critical role for transcription-factor Sp1 in hypoxia-induction of CD39. Using a combination of cd39(-/-) mice and Sp1 small interfering RNA in in vivo cardiac ischemia models revealed Sp1-mediated induction of cardiac CD39 during myocardial ischemia. In summary, these results identify a novel Sp1-dependent regulatory pathway for CD39 and indicate the likelihood that CD39 is central to protective responses to hypoxia/ischemia.

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    • "It has been described that ectonucleotidases expression is regulated by several transcription factors, including Sp1 [44], Stat3 and Gfi-1 [31]. CD39 and CD73 expression and function are upregulated under hypoxic conditions [45] as well by the presence of TGF-b1 and IL-6 [31] [46], type 1 IFNs [47] and Wnt signaling pathway agonists [48]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Extracellular ATP is a danger signal released by dying and damaged cells, and it functions as an immunostimulatory signal that promotes inflammation. However, extracellular adenosine acts as an immunoregulatory signal that modulates the function of several cellular components of the adaptive and innate immune response. Consequently, the balance between ATP and adenosine concentration is crucial in immune homeostasis. CD39 and CD73 are two ectonucleotidases that cooperate in the generation of extracellular adenosine through ATP hydrolysis, thus tilting the balance towards immunosuppressive microenvironments. Extracellular adenosine can prevent activation, proliferation, cytokine production and cytotoxicity in T cells through the stimulation of the A2A receptor; however, recent evidence has shown that adenosine may also affect other processes in T-cell biology. In this review, we discuss evidence that supports a role of CD73 and CD39 ectonucleotidases in controlling naive T-cell homeostasis and memory cell survival through adenosine production. Finally, we propose a novel hypothesis of a possible role of these ectonucleotidases and autocrine adenosine signaling in controlling T-cell differentiation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    FEBS Letters 07/2015; 589(22). DOI:10.1016/j.febslet.2015.07.027 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    • "These discrepancies suggest that the microenvironment and maturation state of T cells may be critical for the expression of purinergic receptors and the ectonucleotide cascade. In line with this interpretation, maturation and activation state of T cells was reported to influence ectoenzyme expression levels [26], [27]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Extracellular nucleotides and nucleosides have been implicated as important signaling molecules in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). While adenosine is known to inhibit T cell activation, little information is available as to ATP and NAD degrading enzymes, the expression of ATP and adenosine receptors/transporters in different T cell subsets. ALI was induced by challenging mice with intra-tracheal instillation of 60 µl (3 µg/g) LPS. After 3 d and 7 d blood, lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage was collected and immune cells were analyzed using flow cytometry. The transcriptional phenotype of T helper cells, cytotoxic and regulatory T cells sorted by FACS was assessed by measuring the expression profile of 28 genes related to purinergic signaling using TaqMan Array Micro Fluidic Cards. Catabolism of ATP, NAD and cAMP by activated CD4+ T cells was evaluated by HPLC. CD73 was found to be highly abundant on lymphoid cells with little abundance on myeloid cells, while the opposite was true for CD39. After ALI, the abundance of CD39 and CD73 significantly increased on all T cell subsets derived from lung tissue and bronchoalveolar space. Expression analysis in T cell subsets of the lung revealed ATP (Cd39, Cd73) and NAD (Cd38, Cd157, Cd296, Pc-1) degrading enzymes. However, only transcription of Cd38, Cd39, Cd73, Ent1 and A2a receptor was significantly upregulated after ALI in T helper cells. CD4+ T cells from injured lung rapidly metabolized extracellular ATP to AMP and adenosine but not NAD or cAMP. These findings show that lung T cells - the dominant cell fraction in the later phase of ALI - exhibit a unique expression pattern of purinergic signaling molecules. Adenosine is formed by T cells at an enhanced rate from ATP but not from NAD and together with upregulated A2a receptor is likely to modulate the healing process after acute lung injury.
    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e95382. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0095382 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Two members of ecto-nucleotidases families, the E-NTPDase CD39 and the 5′-nucleotidase CD73, acting sequentially, seem to have a crucial role in tumor-immune cell interaction [6]. They both are expressed not only by infiltrating immune cells but also by tumor cells, and their expression is regulated by hypoxia [10, 14]. Increased CD39 and CD73 expression has been described in various cancer types, mostly in correlation with a poor prognosis [15–17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: One of the strategies used by tumors to evade immunosurveillance is the accumulation of extracellular adenosine, which has immunosupressive and tumor promoting effects. The study of the mechanisms leading to adenosine formation at the tumor interstitium are therefore of great interest in oncology. The dominant pathway generating extracellular adenosine in tumors is the dephosphorylation of ATP by ecto-nucleotidases. Two of these enzymes acting sequentially, CD39 and CD73, efficiently hydrolyze extracellular ATP to adenosine. They have been found to play a crucial role in a variety of tumors, but there were no data concerning endometrial cancer, the most frequent of the invasive tumors of the female genital tract. The aim of the present work is to study the expression of CD39 and CD73 in human endometrial cancer. We have analyzed protein and gene expression, as well as enzyme activity, in type I endometrioid adenocarcinomas and type II serous adenocarcinomas and their nonpathological endometrial counterparts. High levels of both enzymes were found in tumor samples, with significantly increased expression of CD39 in type II serous tumors, which also coincided with the higher tumor grade. Our results reinforce the involvement of the adenosinergic system in cancer, emphasizing the relevance of ecto-nucleotidases as emerging therapeutic targets in oncology.
    Mediators of Inflammation 02/2014; 2014(13):509027. DOI:10.1155/2014/509027 · 3.24 Impact Factor
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