High acquisition and environmental contamination rates of CC17 ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in a Dutch hospital.
ABSTRACT Enterococcus faecium has rapidly emerged as a nosocomial pathogen worldwide, and the majority of these isolates belong to clonal complex-17 (CC17). In Europe, CC17 isolates are usually ampicillin-resistant, but most are still vancomycin-sensitive. We aimed to study ampicillin-resistant E. faecium (ARE) epidemiology in our hospital.
In a 3 month study, 210 of 358 admissions (59%) to haematology and gastroenterology/nephrology were screened for rectal ARE colonization on admission (<48 h) and 148 of 210 (70%) also at discharge (<72 h). In a second (3 month) study, environmental swabs from eight predetermined sites were obtained from ARE-colonized haematology patients once weekly. All ARE isolates were genotyped by multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA).
ARE admission prevalence was 10% and 16% and acquisition rates were 39% and 15% in haematology and gastroenterology/nephrology, respectively. Carriage on admission was associated with previous admission <1 year (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.8-14.0) and acquisition with beta-lactam (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.7) and quinolone use (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1-8.2). Five of the 57 (9%) colonized patients developed invasive ARE infections. Genotyping revealed 12 genotypes (all CC17) with two MLVA types responsible for 94% of acquisitions. In 18 of the 19 colonized patients, the environment was contaminated with ARE. Sites most often contaminated were the toilet seat (43%), over-bed table (34%) and television remote control (28%).
CC17 ARE epidemiology is characterized by high admission (10% to 16%), acquisition (15% to 39%) and environmental contamination (22%) rates, resulting from cross-transmission, readmission and antibiotic pressure. A multifaceted infection control approach will be needed to curtail further spread.
Article: Dynamics of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium clones colonizing hospitalized patients: data from a prospective observational study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Little is known about the dynamics of colonizing Enterococcus faecium clones during hospitalization, invasive infection and after discharge. In a prospective observational study we compared intestinal E. faecium colonization in three patient cohorts: 1) Patients from the Hematology Unit at the University Hospital Basel (UHBS), Switzerland, were investigated by weekly rectal swabs (RS) during hospitalization (group 1a, n = 33) and monthly after discharge (group 1b, n = 21). 2) Patients from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at the University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands (group 2, n = 25) were swabbed weekly. 3) Patients with invasive E. faecium infection at UHBS were swabbed at the time of infection (group 3, n = 22). From each RS five colonies with typical E. faecium morphology were picked. Species identification was confirmed by PCR and ampicillin-resistant E. faecium (ARE) isolates were typed using Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA). The Simpson's Index of Diversity (SID) was calculated. Out of 558 ARE isolates from 354 RS, MT159 was the most prevalent clone (54%, 100%, 52% and 83% of ARE in groups 1a, 1b, 2 and 3, respectively). Among hematological inpatients 13 (40%) had ARE. During hospitalization, the SID of MLVA-typed ARE decreased from 0.745 [95%CI 0.657-0.833] in week 1 to 0.513 [95%CI 0.388-0.637] in week 3. After discharge the only detected ARE was MT159 in 3 patients. In the ICU (group 2) almost all patients (84%) were colonized with ARE. The SID increased significantly from 0.373 [95%CI 0.175-0.572] at week 1 to a maximum of 0.808 [95%CI 0.768-0.849] at week 3 due to acquisition of multiple ARE clones. All 16 patients with invasive ARE were colonized with the same MLVA clone (p < 0.001). In hospitalized high-risk patients MT159 is the most frequent colonizer and cause of invasive E. faecium infections. During hospitalization, ASE are quickly replaced by ARE. Diversity of ARE increases on units with possible cross-transmission such as ICUs. After hospitalization ARE are lost with the exception of MT159. In invasive infections, the invasive clone is the predominant gut colonizer.BMC Infectious Diseases 03/2012; 12:68. · 3.12 Impact Factor