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Doenças da gengiva e periodonto em crianças e adolescentes

Acta Pediatr Port 01/2009;

ABSTRACT Resumo Estudos epidemiológicos indicam que a gengivite é pratica-mente universal em crianças e adolescentes. Com recurso a trabalhos publicados em revistas de renome, foi efectuada uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o tema, seleccionando a infor-mação mais útil, para os médicos, generalista e pediatra. A presença de placa bacteriana é o principal agente desen-cadeante da patologia periodontal. Como reacção à sua pre-sença, surge uma inflamação que, na maioria das crianças se mantém ligeira, superficial, com ligeiro avermelhar da gengi-va à volta do colo do dente, mas que nos casos em que exis-tam desequilíbrios entre a acção microbiana e a resposta do hospedeiro, pode evoluir para periodontite, ou seja, originar perda óssea. Uma gengiva de aspecto edemaciado, hiperplási-ca, de contorno alterado, mais espessa e sensível ao toque, fornece-nos a suspeita de patologia periodontal. Também a presença de hemorragia ao toque, ou durante a escovagem, a presença de secreção purulenta entre os dentes e/ou na gengi-va, mobilidade ou esfoliação dentária precoce, alteração da posição dos dentes, cálculo supra e subgengival, e recessão gengival são sinais de alerta. Apesar das formas graves de doença periodontal serem raras em crianças e jovens, cabe aos médicos que as acompanham desde cedo ter este tipo de problema sempre presente, encam-inhando o paciente para o médico dentista logo que possível, de modo a que este efectue o diagnóstico precoce e promova uma intervenção rápida que cesse a evolução da doença Palavras-chave: Gengiva, periodonto, doença periodontal, criança, adolescentes Acta Pediatr Port 2009;40(1):23-29 Gengival and periodontal diseases in children and adolescents Abstract Epidemiological studies indicate that gingivitis has an univer-sal expression in children and adolescents. Using recent and renowned publications, a review was made by choosing the

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