Therapeutic application of monoclonal antibodies in cancer: advances and challenges.
ABSTRACT IntroductionMonoclonal antibody (mAb)-based products are highly specific for a particular antigen. This characteristic feature of the molecules makes them an ideal tool for many applications including cancer diagnosis and therapy.Sources of dataWe performed comprehensive searches of PubMed, Medline and the Food and Drug Administration website using keywords such as 'therapeutic antibodies' and 'anti-cancer antibodies'.Areas of agreementTreatment of cancer patients with antibodies when used alone or in combination with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, or conjugated to drugs or radioisotopes, prolongs overall survival in cancer patients. Currently, there are 14 mAb-based drugs that have been approved for the treatment of cancer patients.Areas of controversyThe response of cancer patients to antibody therapy can be of short duration. Therapeutic antibodies are expensive and may have side effects. There are no reliable predictive biomarkers for sensitivity or resistance to certain therapeutic antibodies.Future focusThere should be additional studies to discover novel therapeutic targets, to develop more effective antibody-based drugs with fewer side effects, to identify more reliable predictive biomarker(s) for response to therapy with antibody-based drugs and to develop alternative strategies (e.g. transgenic plants, transgenic farm animals) for production of large quantities and more affordable batches of therapeutic antibodies.Areas timely for developing researchA better understanding of cancer biology, the hallmarks of human cancers and the immune system would lead to identification of additional cell surface biomarkers. These in turn would facilitate the development of novel and biosimilar antibody-based drugs and their routine use as 'magic bullets' for the targeted therapy of human cancers.
- SourceAvailable from: Dongdong Wu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Conventional cancer therapies mainly focus on mass cell killing without high specificity and often cause severe side effects and toxicities. Peptides are a novel class of anticancer agents that could specifically target cancer cells with lower toxicity to normal tissues, which will offer new opportunities for cancer prevention and treatment. Anticancer peptides face several therapeutic challenges. In this review, we present the sources and mechanisms of anticancer peptides and further discuss modification strategies to improve the anticancer effects of bioactive peptides.Cancer Letters 08/2014; 351(1):13-22. · 5.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Moxetumomab pasudotox (HA22) is a recombinant immunotoxin, now in clinical trials, that combines an anti-CD22-Fv with a 38-kDa fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A. To produce a less immunogenic molecule without reducing the half-life in circulation, we constructed LMB11 combining an anti-CD22 Fab with a less immunogenic version of PE38. We found that LMB11 retains full activity toward CD22-expressing cells. In mice, the half-life of LMB11 is 29 minutes and the antitumor activity of LMB11 is better than that of HA22. Because it can be safely given at much higher doses, LMB11 produced complete tumor remissions in 7/7 mice.Leukemia Research 10/2014; · 2.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: α-2,6-sialyltransferase catalyzes the terminal step of complex N-glycan biosynthesis on human glycoproteins, attaching sialic acid to outermost galactosyl residues on otherwise fully assembled branched glycans. This "capping" of N-glycans is critical for therapeutic efficacy of pharmaceutical glycoproteins, making the degree of sialylation an important parameter of glycoprotein quality control. Expression of recombinant glycoproteins in mammalian cells usually delivers heterogeneous N-glycans, with a minor degree of sialylation. In-vitro chemo-enzymatic glycoengineering of the N-glycans provides an elegant solution to increase the degree of sialylation for analytical purposes but also possibly for modification of therapeutic proteins. Results: Human α-2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal-I) was secretory expressed in P.pastoris KM71H. ST6Gal-I featuring complete deletion of both the N-terminal cytoplasmic tail and the transmembrane domain, and also partial truncation of the stem region up to residue 108 were expressed N-terminally fused to a His or FLAG-Tag. FLAG-tagged proteins proved much more resistant to proteolysis during production than the corresponding His-tagged proteins. Because volumetric transferase activity measured on small-molecule and native glycoprotein acceptor substrates did not correlate to ST6Gal-I in the supernatant, enzymes were purified and characterized in their action on non-sialylated protein-linked and released N-glycans, and the respective N-terminal sequences were determined by automated Edman degradation. Irrespective of deletion construct used (Δ27, Δ48, Δ62, Δ89), isolated proteins showed N-terminal processing to a highly similar degree, with prominent truncations at residue 108 -114, whereby only Δ108ST6Gal-I retained activity. FLAG-tagged Δ108ST6Gal-I was therefore produced and obtained with a yield of 4.5 mg protein/L medium. The protein was isolated and shown by MS to be intact. Purified enzyme exhibited useful activity (0.18 U/mg) for sialylation of different substrates. Conclusions: Functional expression of human ST6Gal-I as secretory protein in P.pastoris necessitates that N-terminal truncations promoted by host-inherent proteases be tightly controlled. N-terminal FLAG-Tag contributes extra stability to the N-terminal region as compared to N-terminal His-Tag. Proteolytic degradation proceeds up to residues 108 – 114 and of the resulting short-form variants, only Δ108ST6Gal-I seems to be active. FLAG-Δ108ST6Gal-I transfers sialic acids to monoclonal antibody substrate with sufficient yields, and because it is stably produced in P.pastoris, it is identified here as an interesting glycoengineering catalyst.Microbial Cell Factories 09/2014; 13(1):138. · 4.25 Impact Factor