Epidemiological investigation of selected pigeon viral infections in Poland.
ABSTRACT Due to a lack of data in regard to the spread of viral infections in Polish pigeon populations, studies were undertaken to assess the frequency of adeno-, circo- and herpesvirus infections in flocks of pigeons across the entire country. In total, 107 flocks were examined, of which 61 per cent consisted of racing and 39 per cent of fancy pigeons. The flocks were divided into groups according to breed (racing and fancy pigeons) as well as physical condition (healthy and sick). In the studied pigeon flocks, the pigeon circovirus (PiCV) genetic material was the most frequently detected (44.5-100 per cent depending on the group), pigeon herpesvirus genetic material was second in frequency (0-30 per cent depending on the group), while genetic material of pigeon adenovirus was found only in two flocks of young birds with clinical symptoms of Young Pigeon Disease Syndrome (YPDS). The presence of fowl adenovirus (FAdV) genetic material was not detected in any of the studied flocks. Results obtained demonstrate a wide spread of circovirus in pigeon flocks in Poland, and substantiate earlier theories proposed by other authors, that immunosuppression evoked by PiCV infection is one of the main causative agents of YPDS.
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ABSTRACT: Birds are frequent sources of emerging human infectious diseases. Viral particles were enriched from the feces of 51 wild urban pigeons (Columba livia) from Hong Kong and Hungary, their nucleic acids randomly amplified and then sequenced. We identified sequences from known and novel species from the viral families Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, Picornaviridae, Reoviridae, Adenovirus, Astroviridae, and Caliciviridae (listed in decreasing number of reads), as well as plant and insect viruses likely originating from consumed food. The near full genome of a new species of a proposed parvovirus genus provisionally called Aviparvovirus contained an unusually long middle ORF showing weak similarity to an ORF of unknown function from a fowl adenovirus. Picornaviruses found in both Asia and Europe that are distantly related to the turkey megrivirus and contained a highly divergent 2A1 region were named mesiviruses. All eleven segments of a novel rotavirus subgroup related to a chicken rotavirus in group G were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. This study provides an initial assessment of the enteric virome in the droppings of pigeons, a feral urban species with frequent human contact.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e72787. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) has a ~2kb genome circular single stranded DNA genome. All but one of the known PiCV isolates have been found infecting pigeons in various parts of the world. In this study we screened 324 swab and tissue samples from Polish pigeons and recovered 30 complete genomes, 16 of which came from birds displaying no obvious pathology. Together with 17 other publically available PiCV complete genomes sampled throughout the Northern Hemisphere and Australia, we find that PiCV displays a similar degree of genetic diversity to that of the related Psittacine infecting circovirus species, Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). We show that, as is the case with its pathology and epidemiology, PiCV also displays patterns of recombination, genomic secondary structure and natural selection that are generally very similar to those of BFDV. It is likely that breeding facilities play a significant role in the emergence of new recombinant PiCV variants and given that ~50% of the domestic pigeon population is infected subclinically, all pigeon breeding stocks should be routinely screened for this virus.Journal of General Virology 01/2014; 95:1338-1351. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pigeon circovirus (PiCV) is an immunosuppressive agent widespread throughout the world, which causes a disease in pigeons called Young Pigeon Disease Syndrome. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of PiCV in Poland and investigate the genetic diversity relative to other known PiCV isolates. Samples from 152 pigeon flocks (88 flocks of racing pigeons and 64 flocks of fancy pigeons) from various regions of Poland were tested by polymerase chain reaction and an approximately 326-base fragment of the capsid protein gene (Cap gene) of the virus was amplified. The average viral prevalence was found to be 70.3% (76.13% in racing pigeons and 62.5% in fancy pigeons). Among the obtained positive samples, 21 were selected for sequencing and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. It was found that the majority of Polish PiCV isolates, to varying degrees, are related to isolates occurring in Europe. It was also observed that the Cap gene is variable and mutations often occur in it, which impacts the amino acid sequences in the capsid protein (nucleotide similarity averaged 86.57%, amino acid similarity averaged 89.02%).Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 03/2014; · 1.17 Impact Factor