High consumption of smokeless tobacco ("snus") predicts increased risk of type 2 diabetes in a 10-year prospective study of middle-aged Swedish men
ABSTRACT Aims: Cigarette smoking increases the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In Sweden and the US, people shift from smoking cigarettes to smokeless tobacco, i.e. oral moist snuff, "snus", to attain harm-reduction. There are limited and conflicting data as to whether snus increases the risk of T2D. The present study investigated if snus use predicts the risk of T2D incidence. Methods: This is a prospective population-based study where middle-aged Swedish men (n=2,383), without previously diagnosed T2D, were investigated with oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at baseline in 1992-94 and at follow-up 10 years later. Odds ratios (ORs) for newly diagnosed T2D at follow-up were assessed among those using snus, or cigarettes, at both baseline and follow-up, adjusted for major confounders. Results: The OR for T2D was not significantly increased in the whole group of snus users. However, the risk of diabetes increased with increasing weekly snus consumption; ORs (CIs) for >four boxes of snus/week were 2.1 (CI 0.9-4.9), and for >five boxes/week 3.3 (CI 1.4-8.1). For comparison, men smoking at baseline and still smoking at follow-up had an increased risk of diabetes compared with never smokers, OR 1.5 (CI 0.8-3.0), most evident for those smoking >15 cigarettes per day, OR 2.4 (CI 1.0-5.8). Tobacco use was associated with estimations of low insulin response (OGTT), but not low insulin sensitivity (HOMA). Conclusions: High consumption of snus, like smoking, predicts risk of developing T2D. This should be considered when seeking harm-reduction by changing from use of cigarettes to snus. T2D risk from tobacco use may be mediated by effects on beta-cell function.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cigarette companies increasingly promote novel smokeless tobacco products to smokers, encouraging them to use smokeless tobacco in smoke-free environments. New messages may counteract this promotion. We developed 12 initial anti-smokeless message ideas and tested them in eight online focus groups with 75 US smokers. Those smokers who never tried smokeless tobacco were unaware of health risks of novel smokeless tobacco products, perceived scary messages as effective and acknowledged the addictive nature of nicotine. Smokers who had tried smokeless tobacco shared their personal (mainly negative) experiences with smokeless tobacco, were aware of health risks of novel smokeless tobacco products, but denied personal addiction, and misinterpreted or disregarded more threatening messages. Portraying women as smokeless tobacco users was perceived as unbelievable, and emphasizing the lack of appeal of novel smokeless tobacco products was perceived as encouraging continued smoking. Future ads should educate smokers about risks of novel smokeless tobacco products, but past users and never users may require different message strategies.Health Education Research 01/2014; DOI:10.1093/her/cyt150 · 1.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study examines the effect of past tobacco control policies and projects the effect of future policies on smoking and snus use prevalence and associated premature mortality in Sweden. The established SimSmoke model was adapted with population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data from Sweden. SimSmoke evaluates the effect of taxes, smoke-free air, mass media, marketing bans, warning labels, cessation treatment and youth access policies on smoking and snus prevalence and the number of deaths attributable to smoking and snus use by gender from 2010 to 2040. Sweden SimSmoke estimates that significant inroads to reducing smoking and snus prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tax increases, especially when combined with other policies. Smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 26% in the first few years, reaching a 37% reduction within 30 years. Without effective tobacco control policies, almost 54 500 lives will be lost in Sweden due to tobacco use by the year 2040. Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model identifies gaps in surveillance and evaluation that can help better focus tobacco control policy in Sweden.The European Journal of Public Health 11/2013; DOI:10.1093/eurpub/ckt178 · 2.46 Impact Factor
Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 05/2014; 42(3):225-6. DOI:10.1177/1403494813512045 · 3.13 Impact Factor