Functional link between ataxia-telangiectasia and Nijmegen breakage syndrome gene products

Department of Molecular Medicine/Institute of Biotechnology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 78245-3207, USA.
Nature (Impact Factor: 42.35). 05/2000; 405(6785):473-477. DOI: 10.1038/35013083

ABSTRACT Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) and Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) are recessive
genetic disorders with susceptibility to cancer and similar cellular phenotypes

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    ABSTRACT: The ATM gene is mutated in ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), a genetic instability syndrome characterized by increased cancer risk, as well as other features. Recent studies have shown that the ATM protein kinase plays a critical role in maintaining genome integrity by activating a biochemical chain reaction that in turn leads to cell cycle checkpoint activation and repair of DNA damage. ATM targets include well-known tumor suppressor genes such as p53 and BRCA1, both of which play an important role in predisposition to breast cancer. Studies of A-T families have consistently reported an increased risk of breast cancer in women with one mutated ATM gene, but so far an increased frequency of ATM mutations has not been found in women with breast cancer. Some specific missense and protein truncating variants of ATM have been reported to confer increased breast cancer risk, but the magnitude of this risk remains uncertain. A more comprehensive analysis of ATM is needed in large case-control studies, and in multiple-case breast cancer families.
    Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 01/2004; 9(3). · 5.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nibrin (also named NBN or NBS1) is a component of the MRE11/RAD50/NBN complex, which is involved in early steps of DNA double strand breaks sensing and repair. Mutations within the NBN gene are responsible for the Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS). The 90% of NBS patients are homozygous for the 657del5 mutation, which determines the synthesis of two truncated proteins of 26 kDa (p26) and 70 kDa (p70). Here, HEK293 cells have been exploited to transiently express either the full-length NBN protein or the p26 or p70 fragments, followed by affinity chromatography enrichment of the eluates. The application of an unsupervised proteomics approach, based upon SDS-PAGE separation and shotgun digestion of protein bands followed by MS/MS protein identification, indicates the occurrence of previously unreported protein interacting partners of the full-length NBN protein and the p26 fragment containing the FHA/BRCT1 domains, especially after cell irradiation. In particular, results obtained shed light on new possible roles of NBN and of the p26 fragment in ROS scavenging, in the DNA damage response, and in protein folding and degradation. In particular, here we show that p26 interacts with PARP1 after irradiation, and this interaction exerts an inhibitory effect on PARP1 activity as measured by NAD+ levels. Furthermore, the p26-PARP1 interaction seems to be responsible for the persistence of ROS, and in turn of DSBs, at 24 h from IR. Since some of the newly identified interactors of the p26 and p70 fragments have not been found to interact with the full-length NBN, these interactions may somehow contribute to the key biological phenomena underpinning NBS.
    PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e114651. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The MRE11/RAD50/NBN (MRN) complex plays a key role in detecting DNA double strand breaks, recruiting and activating ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and in processing the breaks. Members of this complex also act as adaptor molecules for downstream signaling to the cell cycle and other cellular processes. Somewhat more controversial are the results to support a role for MRN in the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) activation and signaling. We provide evidence that RAD50 is required for ATR activation in mammalian cells in response to DNA replication stress. It is in turn phosphorylated at a specific site (S635) by ATR which is required for ATR signaling through Chk1 and other downstream substrates. We find that RAD50 phosphorylation is essential for DNA replication restart by promoting loading of cohesin at these sites. We also demonstrate that replication stress-induced RAD50 phosphorylation is functionally significant for cell survival and cell cycle checkpoint activation. These results highlight the importance of the adaptor role for a member of the MRN complex in all aspects of the response to DNA replication stress.
    Human Molecular Genetics 04/2014; · 6.68 Impact Factor


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Jun 24, 2014