Absence of Phosphatidylglycerol (PG) in Respiratory Distress Syndrome in the Newborn
ABSTRACT Phosphatidylglycerol (PG) was absent from lung effluent in 41 infants with respiratory distress syndrome of the newborn (RDS), whereas effluent from healthy control subjects of similar gestational age contained this phospholipid (4.9 ± 2.4% of lipid-phosphorus (P), n = 32). Control infants of 28 weeks of gestation or less with various respiratory disturbances other than RDS also had low PG (0.2 ± 0.2% of lipid-P, n = 5). In RDS surfactant complex often could be isolated from the airways using differential and density gradient centrifugation. The material thus obtained had prominent phosphatidylinositol (PI) (13.6 ± 2.8% of lipid-P, n = 6), but no PG. Of those 18 infants who had such surfactant even in the early stages of RDS, 13 were 35 weeks of gestation or more, 3 were offspring of diabetic mothers, and 2 had severe perinatal asphyxia. In healthy control subjects PG sometimes appeared first within an hour of birth, but in RDS PG did not appear until recovery from RDS.In RDS type II (transient tachypnea of the newborn) PG in lung effluent also was abnormally low (1.3 ± 0.6% of lipid-P, n = 5) and PI was correspondingly prominent (9.7 ± 3.6% of lipid-P, n = 5), indicating immaturity of surfactant similar to RDS.Surfactant with PG and PI has superior surface-active properties compared to that containing PI, but no PG. Surfactant without PG does not seem to stabilize the alveoli of the newborn as well as does surfactant with PG. The failure of PG appearance following birth therefore may precipitate RDS, especially beyond 35 weeks of gestation.Speculation: Pre- and postnatal monitoring of the acidic phospholipids, PG and PI, in lung effluent is useful in diagnosis and follow-up of RDS as well as in evaluation of various therapies.Keywords: Lecithin; phospholipids, acidic; pulmonary surfactant; respiratory distress syndrome
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ABSTRACT: Transphosphatidylation was carried out for phosphatidylglycerol (PG) synthesis from phosphatidylcholine (PC) with the help of cabbage phospholipase D (PLD) in the presence of glycerol. Since PLD catalyses both the hydrolysis and the transfer (base exchange) reactions simultaneously, the comparative investigation was conducted between PC micelles in glycerol-buffer and emulsion of glycerol-buffer in ether containing dissolved PC to minimize formation of the byproduct phosphatidic acid (PA). Various controlling factors including glycerol concentration, substrate concentration, reversibility of end product to byproduct etc. were examined. The initial rate of PG formation was higher in the PC micelles in glycerol-buffer, but so was the proportion of byproduct PA formation. However, the emulsion of glycerol-buffer in ether containing the dissolved PC system seems to be more attractive because almost 100% conversion of PC and 100% selectivity of PG could be achieved at 30% (w/w) glycerol without any significant formation of PA, which guarantees achieving pure product and saving some of the cost of downstreaming as well as no loss of the raw material (PC).Enzyme and Microbial Technology 06/1987; 9(6):350–354. DOI:10.1016/0141-0229(87)90058-5 · 2.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 139 samples of amniotic fluid from diabetic women collected during 34-39 weeks of pregnancy showed higher levels of lecithin, phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) indicating an accelerated surfactant synthesis as compared to that observed in normal pregnancies (13). In ten infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) delivered from diabetic mothers the lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S), PI/S and PG/S ratios were generally low. Only four samples showed definitely immature L/S ratios, whereas the amniotic fluid content of PG in all samples was unmeasurable or low. In 56 samples of amniotic fluid collected during the third trimester from preeclamptic pregnancies PI/S and PG/S ratios after 36-37 weeks were comparable with those of normal pregnancies. In 11 neonates with subsequent RDS the L/S ratios were immature, and PG was critically low or lacking in the majority of the samples. No convincing association between the PI content and development of RDS could be observed in any of the groups.
Article: Diagnose der fetalen Gefährdung[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Zusammenfassung Das Serumkonzentrationsverhalten von hPL, Östriol und Östetrol im Schwangerschaftsverlauf wachstumsretardierter Feten wurde untersucht. Hierbei erfolgte die Gruppierung der Wachstumsretardierung nach folgenden Kriterien: Gruppe A: Gewicht10. Perzentile, 28.–42. SSW; Gruppe B: Gewicht2500 g,Archives of Gynecology 06/1983; 235(1):540-558. DOI:10.1007/BF02428785