Prevalence of serum antibody titers against feline panleukopenia virus, feline herpesvirus 1, and feline calicivirus in cats entering a Florida animal shelter
Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32608.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (Impact Factor: 1.56). 11/2012; 241(10):1320-5. DOI: 10.2460/javma.241.10.1320
Objective-To determine the proportion of cats entering a Florida animal shelter with serum antibody titers against feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV1), and feline calicivirus (FCV) and to identify factors associated with seropositivity. Design-Cross-sectional study. Animals-347 cats admitted to a Florida animal shelter. Procedures-Within 24 hours after admission to the animal shelter, blood samples were collected from all cats ≥ 8 weeks of age. Serum antibody titers against FPV were determined via a hemagglutination inhibition assay, and those against FHV1 and FCV were determined via virus neutralization assays. Age, sex, environment (urban or rural), source (stray or previously owned), evidence of previous caregiving, health status (healthy or not healthy), and outcome (adoption, transfer, return to owner, or euthanasia) were evaluated as potential factors associated with antibody seropositivity. Results-Of 347 cats, 138 (39.8%), 38 (11.0%), and 127 (36.6%) had antibody titers ≥ 40, ≥ 8, and ≥ 32 (ie, seropositive) against FPV, FHV1, and FCV, respectively. Factors associated with seropositivity included being neutered, age ≥ 6 months, and being relinquished by an owner. On multivariable analysis, health status at shelter admission, environment, vaccination at shelter admission, and outcome were not associated with seropositivity. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Most cats were seronegative for antibodies against FPV, FHV1, and FCV at the time of admission to an animal shelter. These findings supported current guidelines that recommend vaccination of all cats immediately after admission to animal shelters, regardless of the source or physical condition.
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ABSTRACT: Sleeping and resting respiratory rates are commonly measured variables in patients with cardiac disease. However, little information is available on these variables in healthy client-owned cats or cats with subclinical heart disease (SHD). Therefore, we examined and characterized the sleeping respiratory rate (SRR) and resting respiratory rate (RRR) in 59 echocardiographically normal (EN) and 28 apparently healthy (AH) cats, and 54 SHD cats acquired by the cat owners in the home environment on 8-10 separate occasions. The within-cat mean sleeping respiratory rate (SRRmean) in EN cats, AH cats and SHD cats with mild or moderate left atrial (LA) enlargement (as defined by quantiles of the ratio of the LA to the Aorta [LA:AO]) was consistently <30 breaths/min; median SRRmean approximated 21 breaths/min. The SRRmean of SHD cats with severe LA enlargement sometimes exceeded 30 breaths/min, and was higher than SRRmean of other SHD cats (P <0.05). The within-cat mean resting respiratory rate was consistently higher than SRRmean (P <0.05). Age and geographic location, but not bodyweight, affected SRRmean in EN and AH cats. Within-cat SRR and within-cat RRR did not vary markedly from day-to-day, as evidenced by a low within-cat coefficient of variation. Data acquisition was considered easy or non-problematic by most participants. Our data provide useful guidelines for SRR and RRR, obtained in the home environment, in healthy cats and cats with subclinical heart disease, and might prove useful in managing cats with clinical heart disease. Cats with SRRmean >30 breaths/min and cats with multiple SRR measurements >30 breaths/min likely warrant additional evaluation.10/2013; 16(4). DOI:10.1177/1098612X13508940
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ABSTRACT: Feline panleukopenia is a frequent and commonly fatal disease of cats. Recent published studies have raised suspicions that some cats fail to develop antibodies after vaccination. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of antibodies against feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) in cats in Southern Germany, and to identify factors that are associated with a lack of antibodies. In total, 350 cats presented to the Clinic of Small Animal Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet were randomly included in the study. Information regarding signalment, origin, environment, lifestyle, housing conditions, health status, chronic diseases, glucocorticoid therapy, and vaccination status were collected. Antibodies were detected by haemagglutination inhibition test. Asymptomatic chi-squared tests and univariable logistic regression were used to investigate associations between a lack of antibodies and the different variables. Associations determined to be statistically significant at P<0.1 were verified by a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Of the 350 cats, 103 (29.4%) had no antibodies against FPV. Chronic kidney disease, neoplasia, glucocorticoid therapy, and vaccination status were significantly associated with a lack of antibodies. The cats with no antibodies were likely to have inadequate immunity against panleukopenia and those with chronic diseases or receiving glucocorticoids were less likely to be protected.The Veterinary Journal 01/2014; 199(3). DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.12.023 · 1.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective-To evaluate the effects of various concentrations of l-lysine on in vitro replication of feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1). Sample-Cultures of Crandell-Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cells. Procedures-CRFK cells were inoculated with FHV-1 and maintained in media with 20 combinations of l-arginine and l-lysine concentrations. Changes in cell viability were monitored by continuous measurement of electrical impedance of cultured cells and by observation of viral cytopathic effects. Viral load was determined by use of quantitative PCR assay in supernatants obtained from infected cultures at specified time points. Results-Increases in l-lysine concentration had no effect on the kinetics of cell death in FHV-1-infected cultures. There was also no significant effect (r(2) < 0.1) on viral DNA load for l-arginine concentrations ≥ 12 μg/mL There was a significant effect of increases in l-lysine concentration on viral DNA load in media supplemented with 6 μg of l-arginine/mL (mean ± SD slope, -4,641 ± 1,626 units; adjusted r(2) = 0.45). However, the difference between the lowest (1 × 10(6.28) copies/μL) and highest (1 × 10(6.86) copies/μL) FHV-1 DNA load in these media was < 1 logarithm. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-The difference in FHV-1 DNA load was unlikely to be biologically important. Various l-lysine concentrations did not inhibit in vitro replication of FHV-1 at l-arginine concentrations sufficient to maintain cell growth. This conclusion was consistent with results of other studies in which investigators have not detected a consistently beneficial effect when l-lysine is administered to FHV-1-infected cats.American Journal of Veterinary Research 06/2014; 75(6):572-80. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.75.6.572 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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