The protective effects of St John's Wort extract (SJ), ginsenosides (GS) and clomipramine (CPM) on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression in rats were investigated by using a combination of behavioral assessments and metabonomics. Metabonomic analyses were performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in conjunction with multivariate and univariate statistical analyses. During and at the endpoint of the chronic stress experiment, food consumption, body weight, adrenal gland, thymus and spleen indices, behavior scores, sucrose consumption, and stress hormone levels were measured. Changes in these parameters reflected characteristic phenotypes of depression in rats. Metabonomic analysis of serum, urine, and brain tissue revealed that CPM and SJ mainly attenuated the alteration of monoamine neurotransmitter metabolites, while GS affected both excitatory/inhibitory amino acids and monoamine neurotransmitter metabolites. GS also attenuated the stress-induced alterations in cerebrum and peripheral metabolites to a greater extent than CPM and SJ. These results provide important mechanistic insights into the protective effects of GS against CUMS-induced depression and metabolic dysfunction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical widely used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics, has raised considerable concern in recent decades because of its hormone-like properties. Whether BPA exposure is a health risk remains controversial in many countries. A metabolomics study based on capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF/MS) was performed to study the urine metabolic profiles of Sprague-Dawley rats fed with four dose levels of BPA (0, 1, 10 and 100 μg/kg body weight) for 45 days. Multivariate pattern recognition directly reflected the metabolic perturbations caused by BPA. On the basis of univariate analysis, 42 metabolites including amino acids, polyamines, nucleosides, organic acids, carbohydrates, pterins, polyphenols and sugar phosphates were found as the most significantly differential metabolites. The marked perturbations were related with valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis, D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism, etc. Significant alterations of neurotransmitters (glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid and noradrenaline) and neurotransmitter-related metabolites (tyrosine, histamine, valine and taurine) suggested that the toxic effects of small-dose BPA (below 50 mg/kg/day) may contribute to its interactions with the neuromediating system. Our study demonstrated that metabolomics may offer more specific insights into the molecular changes underlying the physiological effects of BPA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Omics technologies emerged as complementary strategies to genomics in the attempt to understand human illnesses. In general, proteomics technologies emerged earlier than those of metabolomics for major depressive disorder (MDD) research, but both are driven by the identification of proteins and/or metabolites that can delineate a comprehensive characterization of MDD's molecular mechanisms, as well as lead to the identification of biomarker candidates of all types-prognosis, diagnosis, treatment, and patient stratification. Also, one can explore protein and metabolite interactomes in order to pinpoint additional molecules associated with the disease that had not been picked up initially. Here, results and methodological aspects of MDD research using proteomics, metabolomics, and protein interactomics are reviewed, focusing on human samples.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating mood disorder. However, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying depression remain largely unknown. Here, we applied a GC-MS-based metabonomic approach in the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model, a well-established rodent model of depression, to investigate significant metabolic changes in the rat prefrontal cortex (PFC). Multivariate statistical analysis-including principal component analysis, partial least squares-discriminate analysis, and pair-wise orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant-was applied to identify differential PFC metabolites between CUMS rats and healthy controls. As compared to healthy control rats, CUMS rats were characterized by lower levels of isoleucine and glycerol in combination with higher levels of N-acetylaspartate and β-alanine. These findings should provide insight into the pathophysiological mechanism(s) underlying MDD and preliminary leads relevant to diagnostic biomarker discovery for depression.
Behavioural Brain Research 05/2014; 278. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2014.05.027 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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