Topical review: sleep bruxism, headaches, and sleep-disordered breathing in children and adolescents.
ABSTRACT Sleep bruxism, a well-known burden for dentists, is commonly observed in pediatric populations. Dentists are responsible for the detection and prevention of the detrimental consequences on the stomatognathic system that may occur in some patients with sleep bruxism. However, sleep bruxism is much more than tooth wear, since it is frequently associated with orofacial pain, headaches, and other more severe sleep disorders, such as sleep-disordered breathing. Although the mechanisms underlying the possible interactions among sleep bruxism, headaches, and sleep-disordered breathing need further research, these conditions are often concomitant. A literature search was performed to identify relevant publications related to the topic, which have been integrated in this topical review. The aim of this article was to provide a brief overview on sleep bruxism, headaches, and sleep-disordered breathing in pediatric patients and to promote a multispecialist approach (including dentists, sleep specialist physicians, and psychologists) in the diagnosis and management of these frequently associated disorders.
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ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in impairing endothelial function in sleep disordered breathing (SDB) but the underlying mechanism is still undefined. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interplay between oxidative stress, assessed by serum isoprostanes (8-iso-PGF2α) and soluble NOX2-dp (sNOX2-dp), and endothelial function, assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), in children with SDB and healthy controls (HC). One-hundred forty-four children including 45 with primary snoring (PS), 22 with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and 67 HC were recruited in this study; in 15 out of 22 OSA children FMD, serum 8-iso-PGF2α and sNOX2-dp were assessed before and after one month post adeno-tonsillectomy (AT). Compared with HC, OSA and PS children had significantly higher sNOX2-dp and serum 8-iso-PGF2α levels and lower FMD; compared with PS, FMD was significantly lower in OSA children. No significant difference for sNOX2-dp and serum 8-iso-PGF2α was observed between OSA and PS children. FMD was inversely correlated with sNOX2-dp levels (p < 0.001) and with serum 8-iso-PGF2α (p < 0.001). In multiple linear regression analysis, sNOX2-dp (p < 0.001) and serum 8-iso-PGF2α (p < 0.001) were the only independent predictive variables associated with FMD. AT significantly decreased sNOX2-dp and serum 8-iso-PGF2α levels (from 38.2 ± 8.8 to 22.4 ± 11.1 pg/ml, p < 0.001, and from 281.4 ± 69.7 to 226.0 ± 66.4 pg/ml, p < 0.001, respectively); conversely, FMD significantly increased after AT in OSA children (from 3.0 ± 1.5 to 8.0 ± 2.8%, p < 0.001). This study suggests that NOX2-derived oxidative stress is involved in artery dysfunction in SDB children. Such hypothesis is reinforced by FMD improvement after AT coincidentally with oxidative stress lowering. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02247167. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.Atherosclerosis 03/2015; 240(1):222-227. DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.03.024 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. Headaches represent a significant public health problem, but the knowledge of factors specifically related to incidence and persistence of headaches is still limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether gender, self-reported bruxism and variations in the dental occlusion contribute to onset and persistence of frequent headaches. Materials and methods. The study population comprised 280 dental students, examined annually in a 2-year prospective study with a questionnaire and a clinical examination of the jaw function. In the analysis subjects were dichotomized into cases with frequent (once a week or more) or without frequent headaches (controls). The 2-year cumulative incidence was based on subjects without frequent headaches at baseline. Cases with 2-year persistent headaches reported such symptoms at all three examinations. Self-reported bruxism and factors in the dental occlusion at baseline were used as independent variables in logistic regression analyses. Results. The 2-year cumulative incidence of frequent headaches was 21%. Female gender (OR = 2.6; CI = 1.3-5.4), self-reported bruxism (OR = 2.3; CI = 1.2-4.4) and mandibular instability in intercuspal position (OR = 3.2; CI = 1.4-7.5) were associated with incidence of frequent headaches. Persistent headaches during the observation period were present in 12 individuals (4%) and significantly related to mandibular instability in intercuspal position (OR = 6.1; CI = 1.6-22.6). Conclusions. The results indicate that female gender, self-reported bruxism and mandibular instability in intercuspal position are of importance in the development of frequent headaches. In management of these patients a multidisciplinary approach including dentists may be important and, thus, advocated.Acta odontologica Scandinavica 04/2014; 72(8). DOI:10.3109/00016357.2014.906652 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Temporomandibular disorders are described in children from the age of 4. Their prevalence and severity increase strongly during the second decade, which corresponds to the period of orthodontic treatments. At this age the most common symptoms are joint clicking sounds (more than 70% of the cases), sometimes accompanied by episodes of intermittent locking. They would be favored by oral parafunctional activities (gum chewing, biting habits, bruxism...), ligamentous hyperlaxity and modification of the intra-articular space relations during growth. The questioning of the patient and his parents and clinical examination (muscular, articular and occlusal) are essential and very often sufficient for establishing the diagnosis. Even more than in the adult, the therapeutic attitude must rely on conservative and non-irreversible methods (explanations, suppression of the parafunctions, occlusal splints in the case of severe bruxism). These considerations are illustrated by the presentation of two representative clinical cases of temporomandibular disorders frequently encountered in children and adolescents.l Orthodontie Française 03/2013; 84(1):87-96. DOI:10.1051/orthodfr/2013035