International environmental and occupational health: From individual scientists to networked science Hubs

Fogarty International Center, Bethesda, Maryland. .
American Journal of Industrial Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.74). 12/2012; 55(12). DOI: 10.1002/ajim.22130
Source: PubMed


For the past 16 years, the International Training and Research in Environmental and Occupational Health program (ITREOH) has supported projects that link U.S. academic scientists with scientists from low- and middle-income countries in diverse research and research training activities. Twenty-two projects of varied duration have conducted training to enhance the research capabilities of scientists at 75 institutions in 43 countries in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe, and Latin America, and have built productive research relationships between these scientists and their U.S. partners. ITREOH investigators and their trainees have produced publications that have advanced basic sciences, developed methods, informed policy outcomes, and built institutional capacity. Today, the changing nature of the health sciences calls for a more strategic approach. Data-rich team science requires greater capacity for information technology and knowledge synthesis at the local institution. More robust systems for ethical review and administrative support are necessary to advance population-based research. Sustainability of institutional research capability depends on linkages to multiple national and international partners. In this context, the Fogarty International Center, the National Institute of Environmental Sciences and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, have reengineered the ITREOH program to support and catalyze a multi-national network of regional hubs for Global Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences (GEOHealth). We anticipate that these networked science hubs will build upon previous investments by the ITREOH program and will serve to advance locally and internationally important health science, train and attract first-class scientists, and provide critical evidence to guide policy discussions. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most commonly diagnosed entrapment neuropathy of the upper extremity. The objective of this study was to diagnose CTS and to assess its severity using high resolution ultrasound (HRUS) depending on the results of nerve conduction study (NCS). Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study, in which HRUS was performed at 63 wrists of 35 female patients with different severity of CTS (as proved by NCS). Furthermore, 40 healthy volunteers (80 wrists) underwent the same tests as the patients and have been chosen to match the patients in gender, age, and body mass index (BMI). The cross section area (CSA) of the median nerve (MN) was obtained using HRUS at the carpal tunnel inlet by direct tracing method. Results: There was a significant difference in the CSA of the MN at the tunnel inlet in CTS patients when compared with the control group. In fact, the CSA of the control group showed a significant difference from each of patients subgroups. Furthermore, a significant difference in the CSA was seen in between these subgroups. In conclusion, the US examination of the MN seems to be a promising method in diagnosing and grading of carpal tunnel syndrome.
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