Clinical predictors of long-term outcome in obsessive-compulsive disorder

Department of Psychology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Depression and Anxiety (Impact Factor: 4.29). 08/2013; 30(8). DOI: 10.1002/da.22013
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate demographic and clinical factors associated with the long-term outcome of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: A hundred ninety-six previously untreated patients with DSM-IV criteria OCD completed a 12-week randomized open trial of group cognitive-behavioral therapy (GCBT) or fluoxetine, followed by 21 months of individualized, uncontrolled treatment, according to international guidelines for OCD treatment. OCD severity was assessed using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) at different times over the follow-up period. Demographics and several clinical variables were assessed at baseline. RESULTS: Fifty percent of subjects improved at least 35% from baseline, and 21.3% responded fully (final Y-BOCS score < or = 8). Worse prognosis was associated with earlier age at onset of OCD (P = 0.045), longer duration of illness (P = 0.001) presence of at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder (P = 0.001), comorbidity with a mood disorder (P = 0.002), higher baseline Beck-Depression scores (P = 0.011), positive family history of tics (P = 0.008), and positive family history of anxiety disorders (P = 0.008). Type of initial treatment was not associated with long-term outcome. After correction for multiple testing, the presence of at least one comorbid disorder, the presence of a depressive disorder, and duration of OCD remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: Patients under cognitive-behavioral or pharmacological treatment improved continuously in the long run, regardless of initial treatment modality or degree of early response, suggesting that OCD patients benefit from continuous treatment. Psychiatric comorbidity, especially depressive disorders, may impair the long-term outcome of OCD patients.

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Available from: Euripedes C Miguel, Sep 03, 2015
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    • "One major study found a familial relationship between OCD and BDD, as well as between OCD and " compulsive grooming behaviors, " suggesting that these disorders are part of the " familial OCD spectrum " (Bienvenu et al., 2000). Patients with OCD or BDD have a high chance of presenting a chronic course of symptoms, with low rates of full remission, even when adequately treated (Eisen et al., 2010; Jakubovski et al., 2012; Phillips et al., 2013), a poor quality of life, and impaired occupational and social functioning (Ishak et al., 2012; Rosa et al., 2012). These disorders generally require long-term treatment and share serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) as their first-line treatment options (Bandelow et al., 2012; Neziroglu and Khemlani-Patel, 2002; Phillips and Hollander, 2008). "
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    • "Prediction of response to treatment in OCD individuals is an extensive area of research. However, to date, pharmacotherapy studies have focused mainly on demographic and clinical features present at baseline as potential predictors, such as age at OCD onset (Ackerman et al., 1994; Erzegovesi et al., 2001), marital status (Shavitt et al., 2006), type of symptoms content (Alarcon et al., 1993; Ferrão et al., 2006; Mataix-Cols et al., 1999), presence of sensory phenomena (Shavitt et al., 2006), specific axis I or II comorbidities (Baer et al., 1992; Carrasco et al., 1992; Jakubovski et al., 2012; Jenike et al., 1986; Shavitt et al., 2010), family history of OCD (Erzegovesi et al., 2001), illness duration (Alarcon et al., 1993; Ravizza et al., 1995; Stein et al., 2001), level of insight (Erzegovesi et al., 2001), socioeconomic status (Ferrão et al., 2006; Tükel et al., 2006) and family functioning (Ferrão et al., 2006; Tükel et al., 2006). "
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