Department of Psychology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
Depression and Anxiety (Impact Factor: 4.29). 08/2013; 30(8). DOI: 10.1002/da.22013
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate demographic and clinical factors associated with the long-term outcome of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHODS: A hundred ninety-six previously untreated patients with DSM-IV criteria OCD completed a 12-week randomized open trial of group cognitive-behavioral therapy (GCBT) or fluoxetine, followed by 21 months of individualized, uncontrolled treatment, according to international guidelines for OCD treatment. OCD severity was assessed using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) at different times over the follow-up period. Demographics and several clinical variables were assessed at baseline. RESULTS: Fifty percent of subjects improved at least 35% from baseline, and 21.3% responded fully (final Y-BOCS score < or = 8). Worse prognosis was associated with earlier age at onset of OCD (P = 0.045), longer duration of illness (P = 0.001) presence of at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder (P = 0.001), comorbidity with a mood disorder (P = 0.002), higher baseline Beck-Depression scores (P = 0.011), positive family history of tics (P = 0.008), and positive family history of anxiety disorders (P = 0.008). Type of initial treatment was not associated with long-term outcome. After correction for multiple testing, the presence of at least one comorbid disorder, the presence of a depressive disorder, and duration of OCD remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: Patients under cognitive-behavioral or pharmacological treatment improved continuously in the long run, regardless of initial treatment modality or degree of early response, suggesting that OCD patients benefit from continuous treatment. Psychiatric comorbidity, especially depressive disorders, may impair the long-term outcome of OCD patients.


Available from: Euripedes C Miguel, May 24, 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is considered a first-line intervention for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) across the lifespan. Efficacy studies of CBT with exposure and response prevention suggest robust symptom reduction, often with sustained remission. Acceptability of CBT is high, and the treatment is devoid of adverse side effects. The primary mechanism of CBT is based on operant principles, specifically extinction learning. The efficacy of extinction-based treatments such as CBT is being shown for other obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. This article reviews the theoretic basis, clinical application, and relevant treatment outcome research for CBT and related therapies for several obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.
    Psychiatric Clinics of North America 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.psc.2014.05.002 · 2.13 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and debilitating psychiatric condition. Traditionally, anterior capsulotomy (AC) was an established procedure for treatment of patients with refractory OCD. Over recent decades, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has gained popularity. In this paper the authors review the published literature and compare the outcome of AC and DBS targeting of the area of the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Patients in published cases were grouped according to whether they received AC or DBS and according to their preoperative scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS), and then separated according to outcome measures: remission (YBOCS score < 8); response (≥ 35% improvement in YBOCS score); nonresponse (< 35% improvement in YBOCS score); and unfavorable (i.e., worsening of the baseline YBOCS score). Twenty studies were identified reporting on 170 patients; 62 patients underwent DBS of the VC/VS or the NAcc (mean age 38 years, follow-up 19 months, baseline YBOCS score of 33), and 108 patients underwent AC (mean age 36 years, follow-up 61 months, baseline YBOCS score of 30). In patients treated with DBS there was a 40% decrease in YBOCS score, compared with a 51% decrease for those who underwent AC (p = 0.004). Patients who underwent AC were 9% more likely to go into remission than patients treated with DBS (p = 0.02). No difference in complication rates was noted. Anterior capsulotomy is an efficient procedure for refractory OCD. Deep brain stimulation in the VC/VS and NAcc area is an emerging and promising therapy. The current popularity of DBS over ablative surgery for OCD is not due to nonefficacy of AC, but possibly because DBS is perceived as more acceptable by clinicians and patients.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 01/2015; 122(5):1-10. DOI:10.3171/2014.11.JNS132618 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Late life anxiety disorders are the most prevalent psychiatric conditions among older adults and they often present at a sub-threshold level. Specific phobias (SP) are particularly frequent and fear of falling is increasingly being recognized as a class of phobias typically seen in older adults. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), although recognized as a chronic disorder with early onset, has been found to have an onset late in life as well. Social phobia (SoP) has been found to not necessarily have a chronic course in this population. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) manifests in older adults often as an exacerbation of symptoms from a trauma earlier in life. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) augmented with learning and memory aids, and a combination of CBT and medication, has had good outcomes in the management of anxiety disorders in older adults.
    12/2014; 3(4). DOI:10.1007/s13670-014-0105-6