Immunohistochemistry for Immunoglobulin G4 on Paraffin Sections for the Diagnosis of Pemphigus

Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine (Impact Factor: 2.84). 11/2012; 136(11):1402-7. DOI: 10.5858/arpa.2011-0425-OA
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Context.-Pemphigus is a group of autoimmune vesiculobullous diseases characterized by immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies directed against desmosomal adhesion proteins, with IgG4 being the predominant subclass in active diseases. Direct immunofluorescence for IgG performed on fresh-frozen tissue plays a crucial role in diagnosing pemphigus. However, the diagnosis might be hindered when frozen tissue is not available. Objective.-To evaluate the usefulness of immunohistochemistry for IgG4 performed on paraffin sections as a diagnostic test for pemphigus. Design.-Eighteen immunofluorescence-proven pemphigus cases (12 pemphigus vulgaris, 6 pemphigus foliaceus) were studied. Four normal skin specimens and 32 nonpemphigus vesiculobullous disease specimens served as controls. Paraffin sections of all cases were examined immunohistochemically for IgG4 expression. Positivity was defined as distinct, condensed, continuous immunoreactivity localized to the intercellular junctions of keratinocytes. Results.-The immunostains were independently evaluated in a masked manner by 3 pathologists, with a 100% interobserver agreement. Nine of 12 pemphigus vulgaris cases (sensitivity 75.0%), and 4 of 6 pemphigus foliaceus cases (sensitivity 66.7%), were positive for IgG4 immunostain. The overall sensitivity was 72.2%. One control specimen (bullous pemphigoid) showed IgG4 positivity (specificity 97.2%). In specimens demonstrating acantholysis, 8 of 10 pemphigus vulgaris cases (sensitivity 80.0%) and 4 of 4 pemphigus foliaceus cases (sensitivity 100.0%) were positive for IgG4. The overall sensitivity for specimens with acantholytic lesions was 85.7%. Conclusion.-Immunohistochemistry for IgG4 provides a reasonably sensitive and highly specific test for diagnosing pemphigus, especially when frozen tissue is not available, and active acantholytic lesions are examined.

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Available from: Christopher R Shea, Oct 06, 2015
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    • "Direct immunofluorescence (DIF) on sections from a fresh frozen biopsy or indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) performed on patient’s serum are important for verifying the diagnosis [25]. However, in situations where IF is difficult to perform, immunohistochemistry (IHC) on formalin-fixed tissue samples may be an alternative test to confirm the diagnosis [26]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pemphigus is a rare group of life-threatening mucocutaneous autoimmune blistering diseases. Frequently, oral lesions precede the cutaneous ones. This study aimed to describe clinical and histological features of oral pemphigus lesions in patients with skin diseases aged 18 years and above, attending outpatient's facility of Khartoum Teaching Hospital - Dermatology Clinic, Sudan. In addition, the study aimed to assess the diagnostic significance of routine histolopathology along with immunohistochemical (IHC) examination of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens in patients with oral pemphigus. A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted from October 2008 to January 2009. A total of 588 patients with confirmed skin disease diagnosis completed an oral examination and a personal interview. Clinical evaluations supported with histopathology were the methods of diagnosis. IHC was used to confirm the diagnosis. Location, size, and pain of oral lesions were used to measure the oral disease activity. Twenty-one patients were diagnosed with pemphigus vulgaris (PV), 19 of them (mean age: 43.0; range: 20--72 yrs) presented with oral manifestations. Pemphigus foliaceus was diagnosed in one patient. In PV, female: male ratio was 1.1:1.0. Buccal mucosa was the most commonly affected site. Exclusive oral lesions were detected in 14.2% (3/21). In patients who experienced both skin and oral lesion during their life time, 50.0% (9/18) had oral mucosa as the initial site of involvement, 33.3% (6/18) had skin as the primary site, and simultaneous involvement of both skin and oral mucosa was reported by 5.5% (1/18). Two patients did not provide information regarding the initial site of involvement. Oral lesion activity score was higher in those who reported to live outside Khartoum state, were outdoor workers, had lower education and belonged to Central and Western tribes compared with their counterparts. Histologically, all tissues except one had suprabasal cleft and acantholytic cells. IHC revealed IgG and C3 intercellularly in the epithelium. PV was the predominating subtype of pemphigus in this study. The majority of patients with PV presented with oral lesions. Clinical and histological pictures of oral PV are in good agreement with the literature. IHC confirmed all diagnoses of PV.
    BMC Oral Health 11/2013; 13(1):66. DOI:10.1186/1472-6831-13-66 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: In patients with autoimmune skin blistering diseases (ABDs), the diagnostic gold standard has classically been direct and indirect immunofluorescence (DIF and IIF), despite inherent technical problems of autofluorescence. Aim: We sought to overcome autofluorescence issues and compare the reliability of immunofluorescence versus immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining in the diagnoses of these diseases. Methods: We tested via IHC for anti-human IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE, Kappa light chains, Lambda light chains, Complement/C3c, Complement/ C1q, Complement/C3d, albumin and fibrinogen in 30 patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia (El Bagre-EPF), and 30 control biopsies from the endemic area. We also tested archival biopsies from patients with ABDs whose diagnoses were made clinically, histopathologically and by DIF/IIF studies from 2 independent dermatopathology laboratories in the USA. Specifically, we tested 34 patients with bullous pemphigoid (BP), 18 with pemphigus vulgaris (PV), 8 with pemphigus foliaceus (PF), 14 with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) and 30 control skin samples from plastic esthetic surgery reduction surgeries. Results: The diagnostic correlation between IHC and DIF-IIF was almost 98% in most cases. IHC revealed evidence of autofluorescence around dermal blood vessels, dermal eccrine glands and neurovascular packages feeding skin appendices in ABDs; this autofluorescence may represent a non-specific immune response. Strong patterns of positivity were seen also in endothelial-mesenchymal cell junction-like structures, as well as between dermal fibrohistiocytic cells. In PV, we noted strong reactivity to neurovascular packages supplying sebaceous glands, as well as apocrine glands with edematous changes. Conclusions: We suggest that IHC is as reliable as DIF or IIF for the diagnosis of ABDs; our findings further suggest that what has previously been considered DIF/IIF autofluorescence background may be of relevance in ABDs. Our discovery of reactivity against edematous dermal apocrine glands may be related to the fact that PV has a vegetant form, with lesions present in anatomic areas where these glands exist. Abbreviations and acronyms: Bullous pemphigoid (BP), immunohistochemistry (IHC), direct and indirect immunofluorescence (DIF, IIF), hematoxylin and eosin (H & E), basement membrane zone (BMZ), intercellular staining between keratinocytes (ICS), pemphigus vulgaris (PV), autoimmune blistering skin disease (ABD), fogo selvagem (FS), endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia (El Bagre-EPF), dermatitis herpetiformis (DH). Practical learning:
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    ABSTRACT: : Currently, urogenital complaints are among the most common problems encountered by family practitioners, gynecologists, and dermatologists. In response to the intricacy of vulvar disorders, the International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease was created to facilitate the exchange between clinicians and pathologists involved in the care of these patients. Recent classifications for inflammatory disorders and intraepithelial neoplasm have been proposed. In addition, vulvar skin biopsies are the most common source of intradepartmental consultation during dermatopathology sign-out. The purpose of this article is to review the various inflammatory dermatoses of the vulva and to update readers with new advances regarding these entities.
    The American Journal of dermatopathology 09/2014; 36(9):689-704. DOI:10.1097/DAD.0000000000000149 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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