Context.-Atrophic vaginitis is a commonly reported subset of Papanicolaou test results that are negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy, but interpretive criteria overlap with atrophic changes and other entities, hindering concordance among observers. Objectives.-To report on the participant concordance from 2000 to 2009 in the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in Gynecologic Cytopathology, with a reference interpretation of atrophic vaginitis, and to investigate cytologic features of good and poorly performing slides to identify criteria useful in the interpretation of atrophic vaginitis. Design.-We summarized 18 302 responses from the program for slides with a reference interpretation of atrophic vaginitis. We randomly selected 18 Papanicolaou test results (3 conventional, 4 SurePath, and 11 ThinPrep) from good and poor performers for prospective, blinded criteria scoring for the following features: abundance of neutrophils, more than 100 degenerating parabasal cells, more than 25% necrotic background, more than 100 pseudoparakeratotic cells, and the presence of stripped or streaked nuclei, histiocytes, and superficial or intermediate squamous cells. Results.-Most Papanicolaou test results (>90%) with a specific reference interpretation of atrophic vaginitis were categorized as negative. Cytotechnologists are more likely than pathologists are to label it negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM) and are equally likely to mistake it for a high-grade lesion. Degenerating parabasal cells, pseudoparakeratosis, and necrotic background are associated with atrophic vaginitis (P = .001) on Papanicolaou. Abundant neutrophils (>100 per ×400 field) are also significantly correlated (P = .01). Conclusions.-Exact concordance to atrophic vaginitis is less than 90%. Most of the discrepancies are negative results for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy. Advanced atrophic features are as significant as neutrophils are to the interpretation of atrophic vaginitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of applying high wavenumber (HW) confocal Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive assessment of menopause-related hormonal changes in the cervix as well as for determining the effect of Vagifem(®) treatment on postmenopausal women with atrophic cervix. A rapid HW confocal Raman spectroscopy system coupled with a ball lens fiber-optic Raman probe was utilized for in vivo cervical tissue Raman measurements at 785 nm excitation. A total of 164 in vivo HW Raman spectra (premenopausal (n = 104), postmenopausal-prevagifem (n = 34), postmenopausal-postvagifem (n = 26)) were measured from the normal cervix of 26 patients undergoing colposcopy. We established the biochemical basis of premenopausal, postmenopausal-prevagifem and postmenopausal-postvagifem cervix using semiquantitative biomolecular modeling derived from Raman-active biochemicals (i.e., lipids, proteins and water) that play a critical role in HW Raman spectral changes associated with the menopausal process. The diagnostic algorithms developed based on partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) together with leave-one patient-out, cross-validation yielded the diagnostic sensitivities of 88.5%, 91.2% and 88.5%, and specificities of 91.7%, 90.8% and 99.3%, respectively, for non-invasive in vivo discrimination among premenopausal, postmenopausal-prevagifem and postmenopausal-postvagifem cervix. This work demonstrates for the first time that HW confocal Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with biomolecular modeling can be a powerful diagnostic tool for identifying hormone/menopause-related variations in the native squamous epithelium of normal cervix, as well as for assessing the effect of Vagifem treatment on postmenopausal atrophic cervix in vivo during clinical colposcopic inspections.
The Analyst 06/2013; 138(14). DOI:10.1039/c3an00526g · 4.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Context.-In cytology proficiency testing (PT), participants fail for incorrectly interpreting a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or cancer (HSIL+) Papanicolaou test result as negative. This penalty may lead to a false-positive interpretation of negative slides as HSIL+ to avoid failure. Objective.-To investigate factors related to false-positive responses in a PT versus an educational environment. Design.-We analyzed 420 079 responses from 9414 validated negative reference slides in the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in Gynecologic Cytopathology (PAP Education) and compared them with responses from the Gynecologic Cytology Proficiency Testing Program for the percentage of false-positive (HSIL+) interpretations in each of 7 negative subcategories. We evaluated the influence of preparation type (ThinPrep, SurePath, and conventional Papanicolaou test), participant type (pathologist or cytotechnologist), and program time interval (preproficiency test or PT) on a false-positive response. Results.-Reference diagnosis and participant type, but not preparation type, were statistically correlated to false-positive responses. The interaction between program time interval and participant type was also significant. Pathologists had higher rates of false-positive results on preproficiency test (1.2% [800 of 68 690]) than they did on PT (0.8% [993 of 129 857]). Cytotechnologists had no differences between program time intervals (preproficiency, 0.9% [515 of 63 281] versus PT, 1.0 [1231 of 121 621]; P = .91). Negative subcategories frequently mistaken for HSIL+ were reparative changes (4.7% [427 of 9069]), atrophic vaginitis (1.8% [18 of 987]), and negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (1.2% [2143 of 178 651]), but during PT, false-positive rates were significantly increased only for the negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy and herpes simplex virus (P < .001). Conclusions.-Pathologists had lower false-positive rates in the Gynecologic Cytology Proficiency Testing Program than they did in PAP Education, but participants were more likely to report a false-positive response (HSIL+) for negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy and herpes simplex virus in the Gynecologic Cytology Proficiency Test Program.
Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 05/2014; 138(5):613-619. DOI:10.5858/arpa.2013-0083-CP · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction and hypothesis:
The aim of this study is to provide an evidence-based definition of vaginal atrophy (VA) and present an overview of subjective and objective measurements of VA applicable in clinical practice and research.
A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE and EMBASE to identify studies reporting on measurement properties of diagnostic instruments for VA. Additional searches in MEDLINE aimed to document the definitions, diagnostic criteria, and outcome measures of VA. Studies reporting on definitions, diagnosis, outcome measurements, and measurement properties of diagnostic instruments of VA were selected.
Specific symptoms for VA that were consistently described could be identified to suggest an evidence-based definition of VA. As subjective outcome measurements, seven scoring systems to assess the signs of VA during physical examination were identified. The most bothersome symptom (MBS) approach is most useful in clinical practice and research as it focuses on the most common symptoms of VA. As objective outcome measurements, numerous ways to assess vaginal cytology and vaginal pH were identified.
At the moment, there is no consensus on the definition and assessment of VA. We propose to define VA as a common manifestation of estrogen decline associated with specific symptoms of which the most common are: vaginal dryness, itching or irritation, and dyspareunia. In both clinical and research settings, subjective assessment (the MBS approach) and objective assessments of VA (measurement of vaginal maturation index and vaginal pH) should be combined.
International Urogynecology Journal 07/2014; 26(1). DOI:10.1007/s00192-014-2464-0 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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