While dietary wholegrain Flaxseed (FS) has potent anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic and antioxidant properties in murine models of acute and chronic lung injury, the main bioactive ingredient that contributes to these protective effects remains unknown. This study evaluated the lignan complex of FS (FLC) enriched in secoisolariciresinol diglucoside with respect to lung radioprotective and tumor radiosensitizing efficacy using a mouse model of thoracic radiation-induced pneumonopathy. C57/Bl6 mice were fed 0% FS, 10% FS, 10% FLC or 20% FLC for 3 weeks, then irradiated with a single fraction (13.5 Gy) of X-ray radiation treatment (XRT). Mouse survival was monitored for 4 months after irradiation and inflammatory lung parameters were evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Gene and protein levels of protective antioxidant and phase II enzymes were evaluated in lung tissue using qPCR and protein levels were verified by immunoblotting. Prolonged administration of the FLC diet was well tolerated and was not associated with any toxicity. Importantly, comparable to the whole grain 10% FS diet, irradiated mice fed 10% and 20% FLC diets displayed improved survival. Improved hemodynamic measurements were also recorded in irradiated mice fed 10% FS or 10% FLC diet compared to irradiated 0% FS fed mice. Flaxseed lignan complex diet also attenuated polymorphonuclear infiltration and overall lung inflammation to levels comparable to those in nonirradiated mice. Flaxseed lignan complex, similarly to FS, up-regulated gene expression as well as protein levels of protective antioxidant enzymes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Dietary FLC induced radiosensitizing effects in our murine model of metastatic lung cancer. Importantly, protection of normal tissue does not thwart tumor cell death by radiation treatment. The dietary lignan complex of FS, mainly consisting of the phenolic secoisolariciresinol, is protective against radiation pneumonopathy in vivo while not hindering the tumoricidal effects of radiotherapy.
"Three diets were used for this study, all based on a semi-purified AIN-93G diet which was modified to contain the test ingredient as previously described . Importantly, control (no test ingredient added) and experimental diets were isocaloric, isonitrogenous, and contained equal amounts of dietary lipid and carbohydrate. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Wholegrain flaxseed (FS), and its lignan component (FLC) consisting mainly of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), have potent lung radioprotective properties while not abrogating the efficacy of radiotherapy. However, while the whole grain was recently shown to also have potent mitigating properties in a thoracic radiation pneumonopathy model, the bioactive component in the grain responsible for the mitigation of lung damage was never identified. Lungs may be exposed to radiation therapeutically for thoracic malignancies or incidentally following detonation of a radiological dispersion device. This could potentially lead to pulmonary inflammation, oxidative tissue injury, and fibrosis. This study aimed to evaluate the radiation mitigating effects of FLC in a mouse model of radiation pneumonopathy.
We evaluated FLC-supplemented diets containing SDG lignan levels comparable to those in 10% and 20% whole grain diets. 10% or 20% FLC diets as compared to an isocaloric control diet (0% FLC) were given to mice (C57/BL6) (n=15-30 mice/group) at 24, 48, or 72-hours after single-dose (13.5 Gy) thoracic x-ray treatment (XRT). Mice were evaluated 4 months post-XRT for blood oxygenation, lung inflammation, fibrosis, cytokine and oxidative damage levels, and survival.
FLC significantly mitigated radiation-related animal death. Specifically, mice fed 0% FLC demonstrated 36.7% survival 4 months post-XRT compared to 60–73.3% survival in mice fed 10%-20% FLC initiated 24–72 hours post-XRT. FLC also mitigated radiation-induced lung fibrosis whereby 10% FLC initiated 24-hours post-XRT significantly decreased fibrosis as compared to mice fed control diet while the corresponding TGF-beta1 levels detected immunohistochemically were also decreased. Additionally, 10-20% FLC initiated at any time point post radiation exposure, mitigated radiation-induced lung injury evidenced by decreased bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine release at 16 weeks post-XRT. Importantly, neutrophilic and overall inflammatory cell infiltrate in airways and levels of nitrotyrosine and malondialdehyde (protein and lipid oxidation, respectively) were also mitigated by the lignan diet.
Dietary FLC given early post-XRT mitigated radiation effects by decreasing inflammation, lung injury and eventual fibrosis while improving survival. FLC may be a useful agent, mitigating adverse effects of radiation in individuals exposed to incidental radiation, inhaled radioisotopes or even after the initiation of radiation therapy to treat malignancy.
BMC Cancer 04/2013; 13(1):179. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-13-179 · 3.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Secoisolariciresinol diglucosides (SDGs) (S,S)-SDG-1 (major isomer in flaxseed) and (R,R)-SDG-2 (minor isomer in flaxseed) were synthesized from vanillin via secoisolariciresinol (6) and glucosyl donor 7 through a concise route that involved chromatographic separation of diastereomeric diglucoside derivatives (S,S)-8 and (R,R)-9. Synthetic (S,S)-SDG-1 and (R,R)-SDG-2 exhibited potent antioxidant properties (EC50=292.17±27.71μM and 331.94±21.21μM, respectively), which compared well with that of natural (S,S)-SDG-1 (EC50=275.24±13.15μM). These values are significantly lower than those of ascorbic acid (EC50=1129.32±88.79μM) and α-tocopherol (EC50=944.62±148.00μM). Compounds (S,S)-SDG-1 and (R,R)-SDG-2 also demonstrated powerful scavenging activities against hydroxyl [natural (S,S)-SDG-1: 3.68±0.27; synthetic (S,S)-SDG-1: 2.09±0.16; synthetic (R,R)-SDG-2: 1.96±0.27], peroxyl [natural (S,S)-SDG-1: 2.55±0.11; synthetic (S,S)-SDG-1: 2.20±0.10; synthetic (R,R)-SDG-2: 3.03±0.04] and DPPH [natural (S,S)-SDG-1: EC50=83.94±2.80μM; synthetic (S,S)-SDG-1: EC50=157.54±21.30 μM; synthetic (R,R)-SDG-2: EC50=123.63±8.67 μM] radicals. These results confirm previous studies with naturally occurring (S,S)-SDG-1 and establish both (S,S)-SDG-1 and (R,R)-SDG-2 as potent antioxidants and free radical scavengers for potential in vivo use.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The present study aimed at evaluation of in vitro antioxidant and radioprotective potential of lignan phyllanthin isolated from Phyllanthus niruri. Materials and Methods: Four preparative TLC isolates of P. niruri whole plant methanolic extract were assessed for hydroxyl radical scavenging ability. The hydroxyl radical scavenging potentials of S1 and S4 were found to be comparable [i.e. 33.4% (S1) and 26.5% (S4)], S1 exhibited significant (p<0.05) antioxidant activity at 250 µg/ml concentration. Compound S1 was identified as phyllanthin by TLC and HPLC analysis. Further authentication and characterized of phyllanthin was done by mp, UV spectrometry, elemental, IR, NMR and Mass analysis. Radioprotective effect of phyllanthin (S1) was studied against 4 Gy radiation induced chromosome damage in mouse bone marrow at a dose rate of 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/kg, i.p. Bone marrow was scored for aberration in metaphase chromosomes after cytogenetic damage in the bone marrow cells was studied by chromosomal aberration analysis. Results: S1 fraction significantly reduced all types of aberrations at 40, 60 and 80 mg/kg dose. Phyllanthin significantly (p<0.001) decreased percentage of severely damaged cell to only 0.91% at 80 mg/kg dose. Conclusion: Free radical scavenging appears to be the likely mechanism of radiation protection by the phyllanthin isolated from the P. niruri. Together these findings clearly prove that lignin phyllanthin content influences the radiation protective potential of P. niruri to a great extent.
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