The role of non-invasive ventilation and factors predicting extubation outcome in myasthenic crisis.
ABSTRACT Myasthenic crisis is a great threat to patients with myasthenia gravis. Usage of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) to prevent intubation and timing of extubating of patients in myasthenic crisis are important issues though not well documented.
To explore the factors predicting NIV success and extubation outcome in myasthenic crisis, we reviewed the records of 41 episodes of myasthenia crisis.
NIV was applied to 14 episodes of myasthenic crisis and eight (57.1%) of them were successfully prevented from intubation. An Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score of <6 and a serum bicarbonate level of <30 mmol/l were independent predictors of NIV success. For patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation, extubation failure was observed in 13 (39.4%) of 33 episodes, and the most common cause was sputum impaction due to a poor cough strength (61.5%). A maximal expiratory pressure (Pemax) of > or = 40 cmH(2)O was a good predictor of extubation success. Extubation failure led to poorer outcomes.
NIV may be applied to those patients with a low APACHE II score and a lesser degree of metabolic compensation for respiratory acidosis. For patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation, extubation failure is associated with significant in-hospital morbidity in myasthenic crisis. Adequate levels of Pemax and cough strength correlate significantly with extubation success.
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ABSTRACT: Myasthenic patients who require mechanical ventilation often develop pneumonia or atelectasis. Although there are differences in the prevalence of these complications among various institutions, there is no evidence that aggressive treatment shortens the course of the myasthenic crisis. We have quantified the severity of lung injury and aggressiveness of respiratory intervention in myasthenic patients admitted to the neuro-critical care unit. We retrospectively identified all mechanically ventilated myasthenic patients admitted in our unit between 1990 and 1998. Neuro-critical care unit of a tertiary care center in an urban area with a large, established, regional neuromuscular disease program. Eighteen myasthenia gravis patients with 24 episodes of respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. A novel respiratory intervention index, comprising the use of suction, intermittent positive-pressure breathing or bronchodilator treatments, sighs, and chest physiotherapy represented the aggressiveness of the respiratory treatment. The respiratory intervention index was correlated with the lung injury score, used as a measure of lung involvement and other respiratory variables. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Our patients had less atelectasis and pneumonia than previously published series (46% vs. 91%), leading to shorter mechanical support and neuro-critical care unit stay. The mean respiratory intervention index correlated with lung injury score and inversely with forced vital capacity. This study presents an estimate for both severity of pulmonary complications and intensity of respiratory therapy in the severe myasthenic patient with mechanical ventilatory compromise. Our results suggest that aggressive respiratory treatment should be used in myasthenic patients in crisis to diminish the risk for prolonged respiratory complications. These observations should be validated in a prospective study.Critical Care Medicine 01/2003; 30(12):2663-8. · 6.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients with generalized myasthenia gravis (MG) often have associated ventilatory muscle involvement. It is not known whether patients with isolated ocular muscle involvement have identifiable involvement of their ventilatory muscles. Most studies have assessed muscle involvement by measuring muscle strength; however, we hypothesized that measures of ventilatory muscle endurance may be more sensitive tests of ventilatory muscle involvement in myasthenia gravis. We studied 17 patients with myasthenia gravis (four with ocular involvement alone and 13 with varying degrees of generalized myasthenia gravis). Spirometry, ventilatory muscle strength (maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP and MEP)) and endurance (2 min incremental threshold loading test) were measured before and 20 min after i.m. neostigmine. We compared the results with those of 10 normal controls. We found no difference between patients with isolated ocular involvement and controls. Ocular myasthenia gravis patients did not improve after neostigmine. The patients with generalized myasthenia gravis had reduced baseline ventilatory muscle strength (MIP 67 cmH2O (70% of predicted), MEP 86 cmH2O (50% of pred) and endurance (mean maximal load achieved = 246 g, mean pressure at highest load (P) = 19.4 cmH2O) compared with controls. After neostigmine, there was a significant increase in MIP in patients with generalized myasthenia gravis and a trend towards an increased MEP. As a group, the patients with generalized myasthenia gravis did not demonstrate a change in their ventilatory muscle endurance after neostigmine; however, there was considerable interpatient variability in response. We conclude that patients with isolated ocular MG have normal ventilatory muscle strength when tested conventionally.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)European Respiratory Journal 08/1995; 8(7):1130-5. · 6.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To study the expiratory muscle force and the ability to cough estimated by the peak expiratory flow and peak cough flow in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A total of 27 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 52 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy were studied. From the group of 144 normal subjects of this laboratory, we selected 38 for comparison. The maximal inspiratory pressure in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was 64.5 +/- 24.7% and 37.8 +/- 21.8%, respectively, and maximal expiratory pressure was 64.2 +/- 32.5% and 37.7 +/- 21.6%, respectively. Patient groups showed a significant lower peak expiratory flow than normal subjects. Higher peak cough flow than peak expiratory flow was found in all groups. The peak cough flow-peak expiratory flow difference was 46 +/- 18% in normal subjects, 43 +/- 23% in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and 11 +/- 17% in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The peak expiratory flow and peak cough flow were not different in bulbar onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In patient groups, the dynamic and static behavior correlated positively. These results suggest that peak cough flow-peak expiratory flow is useful to monitor expiratory muscle weakness and bulbar involvement and to assess its evolution in these patients.American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 08/2002; 81(7):506-11. · 1.73 Impact Factor