Across mammalian species, human galectin-10 and ovine galectin-14 are unique in their expression in eosinophils and their release into lung and gastrointestinal tissues following allergen or parasite challenge. Recombinant galectin-14 is active in carbohydrate binding assays and has been used in this study to unravel the function of this major eosinophil constituent. In vitro cultures revealed that galectin-14 is spontaneously released by eosinophils isolated from allergen-stimulated mammary gland lavage, but not by resting peripheral blood eosinophils. Galectin-14 secretion from peripheral blood eosinophils can be induced by the same stimuli that induce eosinophil degranulation. Flow cytometric analysis showed that recombinant galectin-14 can bind in vitro to eosinophils, neutrophils and activated lymphocytes. Glycan array screening indicated that galectin-14 recognizes terminal N-acetyllactosamine residues which can be modified with alpha1-2-fucosylation and, uniquely for a galectin, prefers alpha2- over alpha2-sialylation. Galectin-14 showed the greatest affinity for lacto-N-neotetraose, an immunomodulatory oligosaccharide expressed by helminths. Galectin-14 binds specifically to laminin in vitro, and to mucus and mucus producing cells on lung and intestinal tissue sections. In vivo, galectin-14 is abundantly present in mucus scrapings collected from either lungs or gastrointestinal tract following allergen or parasite challenge, respectively. These results suggest that in vivo secretion of eosinophil galectins may be specifically induced at epithelial surfaces after recruitment of eosinophils by allergic stimuli, and that eosinophil galectins may be involved in promoting adhesion and changing mucus properties during parasite infection and allergies.
"The mucosal lining of the abomasum was sampled by scraping the inside surface with a glass slide. Mucus scrapings were prepared for ELISA as described by . Abomasal scrapings were washed off the slide into a 50 ml tube with 3 ml PBST supplemented with 2x Roche Complete Protease Inhibitor Cocktail tablets (PBST2I). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antigen-specific antibody responses against a model antigen (the B subunit of the heat labile toxin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, LTB) were studied in sheep following oral immunisation with plant-made and delivered vaccines. Delivery from a root-based vehicle resulted in antigen-specific immune responses in mucosal secretions of the abomasum and small intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes. Immune responses from the corresponding leaf-based vaccine were more robust and included stimulation of antigen-specific antibodies in mucosal secretions of the abomasum. These findings suggest that oral delivery of a plant bioencapsulated antigen can survive passage through the rumen to elicit mucosal and systemic immune responses in sheep. Moreover, the plant tissue used as the vaccine delivery vehicle affects the magnitude of these responses.
PLoS ONE 12/2012; 7(12):e52907. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0052907 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, the authors employ a quadratic interior point
method to backpropagation neural networks. The new quadratic
backpropagation learning rule searches for a direction which minimizes
the objective function in a neighborhood of the current weight vector.
Numerical results on the parity problem show that the new learning rule
is more than ten times faster than the standard backpropagation, and
five times faster than the linear interior point learning rule developed
earlier by the same authors (1995)
Neural Networks, 1996., IEEE International Conference on; 07/1996
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The function of deciphering the biological information encoded by the glycome, which is the entire repertoire of complex sugar structures expressed by cells and tissues, is assigned in part to endogenous glycan-binding proteins or lectins. Galectins, a family of animal lectins that bind N-acetyllactosamine-containing glycans, have many roles in diverse immune cell processes, including those relevant to pathogen recognition, shaping the course of adaptive immune responses and fine-tuning the inflammatory response. How do galectins translate glycan-encoded information into tolerogenic or inflammatory cell programmes? An improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying these functions will provide further opportunities for developing new therapies based on the immunoregulatory properties of this multifaceted protein family.
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