Receptor binding and transactivation activities of red clover isoflavones and their metabolites.
ABSTRACT Red clover extracts contain a variety of isoflavones, which have affinity toward estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta), androgen receptor (AR), and progesterone receptor (PR). Upon ingestion, they undergo various metabolic transformations. For a complete evaluation of red clover extracts and possible health benefits, the resulting metabolites should also be investigated. Biochanin A, formononetin, genistein, daidzein, dihydrobiochanin A, dihydroformononetin, dihydrogenistein, dihydrodaidzein, 3'-hydroxygenistein, 6-hydroxydaidzein, 6-hydroxydesmethylangolensin, equol, O-desmethylangolensin, angolensin, and p-ethylphenol were tested for their transactivation potential toward ERalpha, AR, and PR in yeast. Competitive binding assays with radiolabeled 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-methyltrienolone or progesterone assessed binding to the respective ERalpha and ERbeta, AR, and PR. The compounds showed only weak binding affinity to AR and PR, with IC(50) values being greater (i.e., lesser affinity) than 10(-5)M for the respective receptor. So far, beneficial health effects have been attributed to the production of equol. We propose that other metabolites can also contribute to these effects. However, more detailed information for the formation of these metabolites in humans and for bioavailability data are required to confirm our assumptions.
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ABSTRACT: Phytoestrogens have received considerable attention because they provide an array of beneficial effects, such as neuroprotection. To better understand the molecular and functional link between phytoestrogens and classical as well as membrane estrogen receptors (ERs), we investigated the effect of daidzein on the glutamate-mediated apoptotic pathway. Our study demonstrated that daidzein (0.1-10μM) inhibited the pro-apoptotic and neurotoxic effects caused by glutamate treatment. Hippocampal, neocortical and cerebellar tissues responded to the inhibitory action of daidzein on glutamate-activated caspase-3 and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in a similar manner. Biochemical data were supported at the cellular level by Hoechst 33342 and calcein AM staining. The sensitivity of neuronal cells to daidzein-mediated protection was most prominent in hippocampal cultures at an early stage of development 7th day in vitro. A selective estrogen receptor β (ERβ) antagonist, 4-[2-phenyl-5,7-bis(trifluoromethyl)pyrazolo[1,5,-a]pyrimidin-3-yl]phenol (PHTPP), and a selective G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) antagonist, 3aS∗,4R∗,9bR∗)-4-(6-Bromo-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3a,4,5,9b-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinoline (G15), reversed the daidzein-mediated inhibition of glutamate-induced loss of membrane mitochondrial potential, caspase-3 activity, and LDH release. A selective ERα antagonist, methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (MPP), did not influence any anti-apoptotic effect of daidzein. However, a high-affinity estrogen receptor antagonist, 7α,17β-[9-[(4,4,5,5,5-pentafluoropentyl)sulfinyl]nonyl]estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17-diol (ICI) 182,780, and a selective GPR30 agonist, (±)-1-[(3aR∗,4S∗,9bS∗)-4-(6-bromo-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3a,4,5,9b-tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinolin-8-yl]-ethanone (G1), intensified the protective action of daidzein against glutamate-induced loss of membrane mitochondrial potential and LDH release. In siRNA ERβ- and siRNA GPR30-transfected cells, daidzein did not inhibit the glutamate-induced effects. Twenty-four hour exposure to glutamate did not affect the cellular distribution of ERβ and GPR30, but caused greater than 100% increase in the levels of the receptors. Co-treatment with daidzein decreased the level of ERβ without significant changing of the GPR30 protein level. Here, we elucidated neuroprotective effects of daidzein at low micromolar concentrations and demonstrated that the phytoestrogens may exert their effects through novel extranuclear GPR30 and the classical transcriptionally acting ERβ. These studies uncover key roles of the ERβ and GPR30 intracellular signaling pathways in mediating the anti-apoptotic action of daidzein and may provide insight into new strategies to treat or prevent neural degeneration.Neuroscience 02/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Under the current EU chemical regulation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals), revised plant protection products and biocides directives, evaluation of endocrine disrupting properties of chemicals becomes a regulatory need. Transcriptional activation (TA) testing of estrogen receptors (ERs) could be one important first step in the screening and testing of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) for regulatory purposes. However up to now there is no consensus on which species or subtype of ERs should be used for TA testing. This study collected data from publications on TA testing with fish and human ERs for 90 chemicals, covering strong, moderate, and weak or non-ER binders. Each chemical has been reported at least twice, with differential ER TA values that result from different cellular contexts, from intra-/inter-species and subtypes of ERs and from intra-/inter-laboratory differences. All assays could distinguish the differential transcriptional activity induced by chemicals of strong, moderate, and weak or non-ER binders. It is concluded that transactivation of ERs in one vertebrate species or one subtype of ERs could be extrapolated to other species or subtypes of ERs for the purpose of chemical screening. It is emphasized that results from ER TA assays can only be used in a weight-of-evidence approach for further testing in regulatory programs. These results are of importance for regulatory testing strategies and decision making for EDCs.Toxicology Letters 03/2011; 201(2):152-75. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Menopausal women suffer from a variety of symptoms, including hot flashes and night sweats, which can affect quality of life. Although it has been the treatment of choice for relieving these symptoms, hormone therapy has been associated with increased breast cancer risk leading many women to search for natural, efficacious, and safe alternatives such as botanical supplements. Data from clinical trials suggesting that botanicals have efficacy for menopausal symptom relief have been controversial, and several mechanisms of action have been proposed including estrogenic, progestogenic, and serotonergic pathways. Plant extracts with potential estrogenic activities include soy, red clover, kudzu, hops, licorice, rhubarb, yam, and chasteberry. Botanicals with reported progestogenic activities are red clover, hops, yam, and chasteberry. Serotonergic mechanisms have also been proposed since women taking antidepressants often report a reduction in hot flashes and night sweats. Black cohosh, kudzu, kava, licorice, and dong quai all either have reported 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7 ligands or inhibit serotonin reuptake, therefore have potential serotonergic activities. Understanding the mechanisms of action of these natural remedies used for women's health could lead to more efficacious formulations and to the isolation of active components which have the potential of becoming effective medications in the future.Planta Medica 02/2013; · 2.35 Impact Factor