Caffeinated energy drinks—A growing problem

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.
Drug and alcohol dependence (Impact Factor: 3.28). 10/2008; 99(1-3):1-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2008.08.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Since the introduction of Red Bull in Austria in 1987 and in the United States in 1997, the energy drink market has grown exponentially. Hundreds of different brands are now marketed, with caffeine content ranging from a modest 50 mg to an alarming 505 mg per can or bottle. Regulation of energy drinks, including content labeling and health warnings differs across countries, with some of the most lax regulatory requirements in the U.S. The absence of regulatory oversight has resulted in aggressive marketing of energy drinks, targeted primarily toward young males, for psychoactive, performance-enhancing and stimulant drug effects. There are increasing reports of caffeine intoxication from energy drinks, and it seems likely that problems with caffeine dependence and withdrawal will also increase. In children and adolescents who are not habitual caffeine users, vulnerability to caffeine intoxication may be markedly increased due to an absence of pharmacological tolerance. Genetic factors may also contribute to an individual's vulnerability to caffeine-related disorders including caffeine intoxication, dependence, and withdrawal. The combined use of caffeine and alcohol is increasing sharply, and studies suggest that such combined use may increase the rate of alcohol-related injury. Several studies suggest that energy drinks may serve as a gateway to other forms of drug dependence. Regulatory implications concerning labeling and advertising, and the clinical implications for children and adolescents are discussed.

Download full-text


Available from: Roland R Griffiths, Aug 15, 2015
1 Follower
  • Source
    • "serving, energy drinks are characterized by a concentration of caffeine closer to that of regular coffee, between 70 and 130 mg per 12 ounces (Heckman et al., 2010). During the last decade, adolescents have been the main consumer target of energy drink producers (Pomeranz, 2012), and the sale and consumption of energy drinks has increased dramatically during this time (Reissig et al., 2009). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adolescent use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has recently received increased attention. Previous studies have established a strong link between AmED and drunkenness and suggest the importance of understanding associations with AmED use. In this study, we operationalized caffeine as daily consumption of coffee, tea, cola drinks, and energy drinks, and examined whether daily caffeine consumption relates to AmED use and drunkenness. We used multilevel structural equation modeling (SEM) with data from the 2013 Youth in Iceland cross-sectional survey among students, ages 16-17 years, who attended all of Iceland's 31 junior colleges (N = 5,784; 75% response rate; 51% girls). Our primary model fit the data very well with a comparative fit index of .994 and root mean square error of approximation of .042. Of the four daily caffeine consumption variables, coffee had the strongest relationship with AmED for both girls and boys, followed by energy drink consumption. The direct relationship between the daily caffeine consumption variables and drunkenness was generally weak for both genders, but the majority of the total relationship between all daily caffeine consumption variables and drunkenness was attributable to mediation through AmED. In our primary model, AmED consumption was also very strongly related to drunkenness (standardized βs = .74-.79). Caffeine use among adolescents ages 16-17 years is strongly related to increased consumption of AmED, irrespective of mode of caffeine consumption. AmED is strongly and positively associated with drunkenness on both individual and school levels.
    Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 05/2015; 76(3):397-405. DOI:10.15288/jsad.2015.76.397 · 2.27 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "However, such premixed drinks represented only a small portion of those consumed, and the mixing of alcohol and energy drinks is expected to continue [6] [14] as bar patrons are still free to order alcohol mixed with energy drinks by bartenders [15] or by mixing their own. Despite the curtailment of sales of premixed energy drinks with alcohol, the relative lack of regulation of energy drinks more generally has led to vigorous marketing campaigns by producers making unsubstantiated claims that they enhance performance, increase attention, and reduce effects of fatigue and alcohol [2]. Sales of high-caffeine energy drinks without alcohol has continued to rise [16] [17]. "
    Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 03/2015; 76(2):346-7. DOI:10.15288/jsad.2015.76.346 · 2.27 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Significantly different results (P < 0.05) are indicated as: (a) relative to control; (b) relative to 5 mM; and (c) relative to 50 mM. coffee, tea and energy drinks are known to have high concentrations of caffeine (Reissig et al., 2009). The average daily consumption of caffeine per individual was estimated to be of 5 mg/kg, reaching a concentration of 50 mM in the plasma (Blanchard and Sawers, 1983; Chou and Benowitz, 1994). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Caffeine is a widely consumed substance present in several beverages. There is an increasing consumption of energetic drinks, rich in caffeine, among young individuals in reproductive age. Caffeine has been described as a modulator of cellular metabolism. Hence, we hypothesized that it alters human Sertoli cells (hSCs) metabolism and oxidative profile, which are essential for spermatogenesis. For that purpose, hSCs were cultured in with increasing doses of caffeine (5, 50, 500 μM). Caffeine at the lowest concentrations (5 and 50 μM) stimulated lactate production, but only hSCs exposed to 50 μM showed increased expression of glucose transporters (GLUTs). At the highest concentration (500 μM), caffeine stimulated LDH activity to sustain lactate production. Notably, the antioxidant capacity of hSCs decreased in a dose-dependent manner and SCs exposed to 500 μM caffeine presented a pro-oxidant potential, with a concurrent increase of protein oxidative damage. Hence, moderate consumption of caffeine appears to be safe to male reproductive health since it stimulates lactate production by SCs, which can promote germ cells survival. Nevertheless, caution should be taken by heavy consumers of energetic beverages and food supplemented with caffeine to avoid deleterious effects in hSCs functioning and thus, abnormal spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Toxicology 02/2015; 328. DOI:10.1016/j.tox.2014.12.003 · 3.75 Impact Factor
Show more