Greater acculturation is associated with higher rates of substance use among Latino adolescents, but the reasons are poorly understood. One potential explanation is that social networks change with acculturation, leading to decreased protection and increased risk. Our objective was to identify Spanish language-sensitive individual and social network attributes associated with substance use in Latino adolescents.
Latino eighth-grade students in a Los Angeles public middle school completed a computerized, self-administered survey about tobacco, alcohol, drug use, and parental monitoring; and description of 30 social network members. Regression analyses were used to estimate the independent associations of network-level Spanish language use and other factors with a substance use behavior scale. Mediation analysis identified Spanish language-sensitive attributes.
Network-level Spanish language use was associated with a substance use scale in bivariate but not multivariate models. Protective Spanish language-sensitive attributes included greater numbers of extended family members in the network, less substance use among network members, and greater perceived parental monitoring. Risky Spanish language-insensitive attributes include more high school aged network members.
These results suggest that parental monitoring and some characteristics of social networks account for the relationship between Spanish language use and substance use among Latino adolescents. Clinic- or community-based interventions that enhance protective characteristics of social networks in Latino adolescents may be effective.
"Evidence also suggests that changes in social networks are associated with acculturation and may lead to variations in risk and resilience. Using a sample of 296 eighth-grade students, a study identified Spanish language-sensitive individual and social network characteristics associated with drug use in Latino adolescents (Allen et al., 2008). Greater density of family "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, I propose a roadmap for the integration of culture in developmental psychopathology. This integration is pressing because culture continues to be somewhat disconnected from theory, research, training, and interventions in developmental psychopathology, thus limiting our understanding of the epigenesis of mental health. I argue that in order to successfully integrate culture into developmental psychopathology, it is crucial to (a) study cultural development, (b) consider both individual-level and social-level cultural processes, (c) examine the interplay between culture and biology, and (d) promote improved and direct cultural assessment. I provide evidence in support of each of these guidelines, present alternative conceptual frameworks, and suggest new lines of research. Hopefully, that these directions will contribute to the emerging field of cultural development and psychopathology, which focuses on the elucidation of the cultural processes that initiate, maintain, or derail trajectories of normal and abnormal behavior.
Development and Psychopathology 11/2013; 25(4 Pt 2):1375-98. DOI:10.1017/S0954579413000679 · 4.89 Impact Factor
"A number of studies, most of which have been cross-sectional, have examined direct associations between acculturation and risk behaviors such as substance use and unsafe sexual behavior. In general , these studies have utilized unidimensional models of acculturation where Hispanic and American cultural practices are cast as opposite ends of a single continuum (e.g., Allen et al., 2008; Ramirez et al., 2004). Several studies have also suggested that increased " acculturation " predisposes Hispanic adolescents toward early sexual behavior (Guilamo- Ramos, Jaccard, Pe~ na, & Goldberg, 2005), lower likelihood of condom use (Kepka, Coronado, Rodriguez , & Thompson, 2010), and greater number of lifetime sexual partners (Lee & Hahm, 2010). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (Mage = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems, substance use, and sexual behavior at five timepoints. Mixture models yielded three trajectory classes apiece for adolescent and parent acculturation. Assimilated adolescents reported the poorest family functioning, but adolescent assimilation negatively predicted adolescent cigarette smoking, sexual activity, and unprotected sex indirectly through family functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that discrepancies between adolescent and parent family functioning reports predicted these adolescent outcomes. Results are discussed regarding acculturation trajectories, adolescent risk behavior, and the mediating role of family functioning.
Child Development 07/2013; 84(4):1355-1372. DOI:10.1111/cdev.12047 · 4.92 Impact Factor
"These results and patterns suggest a divergence from the more traditional extendedfamily household structure found in Latin America, and that perhaps Latino extendedfamily networks and household structures differ by nativity and time spent living in the United States (Van Hook & Glick, 2007). Family composition and household structure have been identified as connected with substance use in youths (e.g., Barrett & Turner, 2006) and, to some degree, in Latino youths (e.g., Allen et al., 2008; Gil, Vega, & Biafora, 1998). Some therapeutic models operating from a family systems framework have, in theory, emphasized the inclusion of extended family members in Latino youth substance use treatment and prevention programs, but in practice they rarely have gone beyond including immediate family members such as parents and siblings (e.g., Gil, Vega, et al., 1998; Liddle, Dakof, et al., 2001; Pantin et al., 2003). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Research has indentified numerous risk and
protective factors related to adolescent alcohol
and other drug (AOD) use. However, most
theoretical models do not account for nuances
attributable to variations in culture or how
these may influence prevention and treatment
models. In this article, we have 4 primary purposes:
First, we present an extensive and critical
review of the literature on adolescent AOD use
among Latino youths; second, we point out the
idiosyncrasies associated with AOD use among
Latino youths; third, we organize the literature
according to Bronfenbrenner’s bioecodevelopmental
framework to bring together findings
from a number of fields and disciplines in a
thoughtful manner; and fourth, we point out
different implications for researchers and practitioners.
Journal of Family Theory & Review 06/2011; 3(2):96–123. DOI:10.1111/j.1756-2589.2011.00086.x
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