Greater acculturation is associated with higher rates of substance use among Latino adolescents, but the reasons are poorly understood. One potential explanation is that social networks change with acculturation, leading to decreased protection and increased risk. Our objective was to identify Spanish language-sensitive individual and social network attributes associated with substance use in Latino adolescents.
Latino eighth-grade students in a Los Angeles public middle school completed a computerized, self-administered survey about tobacco, alcohol, drug use, and parental monitoring; and description of 30 social network members. Regression analyses were used to estimate the independent associations of network-level Spanish language use and other factors with a substance use behavior scale. Mediation analysis identified Spanish language-sensitive attributes.
Network-level Spanish language use was associated with a substance use scale in bivariate but not multivariate models. Protective Spanish language-sensitive attributes included greater numbers of extended family members in the network, less substance use among network members, and greater perceived parental monitoring. Risky Spanish language-insensitive attributes include more high school aged network members.
These results suggest that parental monitoring and some characteristics of social networks account for the relationship between Spanish language use and substance use among Latino adolescents. Clinic- or community-based interventions that enhance protective characteristics of social networks in Latino adolescents may be effective.
"Evidence also suggests that changes in social networks are associated with acculturation and may lead to variations in risk and resilience. Using a sample of 296 eighth-grade students, a study identified Spanish language-sensitive individual and social network characteristics associated with drug use in Latino adolescents (Allen et al., 2008). Greater density of family "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, I propose a roadmap for the integration of culture in developmental psychopathology. This integration is pressing because culture continues to be somewhat disconnected from theory, research, training, and interventions in developmental psychopathology, thus limiting our understanding of the epigenesis of mental health. I argue that in order to successfully integrate culture into developmental psychopathology, it is crucial to (a) study cultural development, (b) consider both individual-level and social-level cultural processes, (c) examine the interplay between culture and biology, and (d) promote improved and direct cultural assessment. I provide evidence in support of each of these guidelines, present alternative conceptual frameworks, and suggest new lines of research. Hopefully, that these directions will contribute to the emerging field of cultural development and psychopathology, which focuses on the elucidation of the cultural processes that initiate, maintain, or derail trajectories of normal and abnormal behavior.
Development and Psychopathology 11/2013; 25(4 Pt 2):1375-98. DOI:10.1017/S0954579413000679 · 4.89 Impact Factor
"A number of studies, most of which have been cross-sectional, have examined direct associations between acculturation and risk behaviors such as substance use and unsafe sexual behavior. In general , these studies have utilized unidimensional models of acculturation where Hispanic and American cultural practices are cast as opposite ends of a single continuum (e.g., Allen et al., 2008; Ramirez et al., 2004). Several studies have also suggested that increased " acculturation " predisposes Hispanic adolescents toward early sexual behavior (Guilamo- Ramos, Jaccard, Pe~ na, & Goldberg, 2005), lower likelihood of condom use (Kepka, Coronado, Rodriguez , & Thompson, 2010), and greater number of lifetime sexual partners (Lee & Hahm, 2010). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined longitudinal acculturation patterns, and their associations with family functioning and adolescent risk behaviors, in Hispanic immigrant families. A sample of 266 Hispanic adolescents (Mage = 13.4) and their primary parents completed measures of acculturation, family functioning, and adolescent conduct problems, substance use, and sexual behavior at five timepoints. Mixture models yielded three trajectory classes apiece for adolescent and parent acculturation. Assimilated adolescents reported the poorest family functioning, but adolescent assimilation negatively predicted adolescent cigarette smoking, sexual activity, and unprotected sex indirectly through family functioning. Follow-up analyses indicated that discrepancies between adolescent and parent family functioning reports predicted these adolescent outcomes. Results are discussed regarding acculturation trajectories, adolescent risk behavior, and the mediating role of family functioning.
Child Development 07/2013; 84(4):1355-1372. DOI:10.1111/cdev.12047 · 4.92 Impact Factor
"For example, research comparing immigrant and non-immigrant children has suggested an " immigrant paradox " (Alegría et al., 2008), in which immigrants are often shown to have better outcomes compared to their native-born peers (Fuligni, 1997). Moreover, research focusing on within-group differences among immigrants has shown that immigrants' higher acculturation to the host culture was associated with poorer outcomes, including increased drug and alcohol use (Allen et al., 2008; Hahm, Lahiff, & Guterman, 2004) and higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders (Alegría et al., 2008). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Direct and indirect/mediated relations of (a) children's and parents' cultural orientations and (b) parent-child gaps in cultural orientations to children's psychological adjustment were examined in a socioeconomically diverse sample of 258 Chinese American children (age = 6-9 years) from immigrant families. Parents reported on children's and their own Chinese and American orientations in language proficiency, media use, and social relationships. Parents and teachers rated children's externalizing and internalizing problems and social competence. Using structural equation modeling, we found evidence for both the effects of children's and parents' cultural orientations and the effects of parent-child gaps. Specifically, children's American orientations across domains were associated with their better adjustment (especially social competence). These associations were partly mediated by authoritative parenting. Parents' English and Chinese media use were both associated with higher authoritative parenting, which in turn was associated with children's better adjustment. Furthermore, greater gaps in parent-child Chinese proficiency were associated with children's poorer adjustment, and these relations were partly mediated by authoritative parenting. Together, the findings underscore the complex relations between immigrant families' dual orientations to the host and heritage cultures and children's psychological adjustment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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