Intraoperative Determinants of Rotator Cuff Repair Integrity An Analysis of 500 Consecutive Repairs

Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, St George Hospital Campus, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
The American Journal of Sports Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.7). 10/2012; DOI: 10.1177/0363546512462677
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND:Rotator cuff repair has a relatively high (20%-90%) chance of retears. Patients with an intact rotator cuff 6 months after surgery have better subjective and objective outcomes at 6 months and 2 years after rotator cuff repair than those who do not have an intact repair. PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to determine if, and if so which, intraoperative factors predict an intact repair 6 months after rotator cuff repair. STUDY DESIGN:Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS:The study consisted of a cohort of 500 consecutive patients who had an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair performed by a single surgeon and an ultrasound evaluation using standard protocols of the repair 6 months after surgery. Exclusion criteria included previous fracture or shoulder surgery, incomplete or partial rotator cuff repair, and concomitant arthroplasty. Rotator cuff tear size was measured intraoperatively and mapped. The quality of the tendon, tendon mobility, and repair quality were assessed and ranked based on predetermined scales (1-4) and recorded on a specifically designed form. Logistic regression analysis was performed, with cuff integrity at 6-month follow-up as the dependent variable and tear/repair factors as the independent variables. RESULTS:The overall postoperative retear rate was 19% at 6 months. The best predictor of rotator cuff integrity was preoperative tear size (correlation coefficient, r = 0.33; P < .001). Patients with small (≤2 cm(2)) rotator cuff tears were least likely to have retears (retear rate, 10%). As the tear size increased, the retear rate increased in a linear fashion: ≤2 cm(2) (10%), 2 to 4 cm(2) (16%), 4 to 6 cm(2) (31%), 6 to 8 cm(2) (50%), and >8 cm(2) (57%). Other surgeon-ranked intraoperative assessments did correlate with retears, but the correlations were relatively weak: repair quality (r = -0.17; P < .001), tendon mobility (r = -0.15; P < .001), and tendon quality (r = -0.14; P < .01). Regression analysis showed that the retear rate at 6-month follow-up was best predicted from the preoperative tear size and the surgeon-ranked repair quality: chance of retear = 0.38 + (0.02 × tear size in cm(2)) - (0.08 × repair quality). Tendon quality and tendon mobility did not contribute significantly to this prediction. CONCLUSION:Tear size was the best intraoperative predictor of repair integrity after rotator cuff repair, with tears less than 2 cm(2) twice as likely to heal than tears greater than 6 cm(2).

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    ABSTRACT: The healing failure rate is high for partial-thickness or small full-thickness rotator cuff tears. To retrospectively evaluate and compare outcomes after arthroscopic repair of high-grade partial-thickness and small full-thickness rotator cuff tears and factors affecting rotator cuff healing. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Included in the study were 55 consecutive patients (mean age, 57.9 ± 7.2 years) who underwent arthroscopic repair for high-grade partial-thickness (n = 34) and small full-thickness (n = 21) rotator cuff tears. The study patients also underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) preoperatively and computed tomography arthrography (CTA) at least 6 months postoperatively, and their functional outcomes were evaluated preoperatively and at the last follow-up (>24 months). All partial-thickness tears were repaired after being converted to full-thickness tears; thus, the repair process was almost the same as for small full-thickness tears. The tendinosis of the torn tendon was graded from the MRI images using a 4-point scale, and the reliabilities were assessed. The outcomes between high-grade partial-thickness tears that were converted to small full-thickness tears and initially small full-thickness tears were compared, and factors affecting outcomes were evaluated. The inter- and intraobserver reliabilities of the tendinosis grade were good (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.706 and 0.777, respectively). Failure to heal as determined by CTA was observed in 12 patients with a high-grade partial-thickness tear (35.3%; complete failure in 4 and partial failure in 8) and in 3 patients with a small full-thickness tear (14.3%; complete failure in 1 and partial failure in 2). The patients with high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears showed a higher tendinosis grade than did those with small full-thickness tears (P = .014), and the severity of the tendinosis was related to the failure to heal (P = .037). Tears with a higher tendinosis grade showed a 7.64-times higher failure rate (95% CI, 1.43-36.04) than did those with a lower tendinosis grade (P = .013). All functional outcome scores improved after surgery (all P < .001); however, there was no difference between groups. The high-grade partial-thickness rotator cuff tears showed more severe tendinosis compared with the small full-thickness tears in this study. Contrary to previous impressions that tear size or fatty infiltration is the factor that most influences healing, tendinosis severity assessed by preoperative MRI was the only factor associated with failure to heal, given the numbers available for analysis, in patients with partial-thickness and small full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Surgeons should pay more attention to tendon quality during repair surgery or rehabilitation in smaller rotator cuff tears, especially in high-grade partial-thickness tears with severe tendinosis. © 2014 The Author(s).
    The American Journal of Sports Medicine 12/2014; DOI:10.1177/0363546514561004 · 4.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extension of delamination and the cuff integrity after arthroscopic repair of delaminated rotator cuff tears.
    Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jse.2014.09.027 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The aim of the study was to analyse greater tuberosity’s (GT) micro-vascularization in the context of rotator cuff tear and to identify factors that could affect the rate and distribution of micro-vessels. Methods Eighty-seven patients with supraspinatus and/or infraspinatus tendon tears were included in a prospective study. Mean age at surgery was 58 years (41–78) and clinical symptoms were lasting from an average of 20 months before surgery. A bone core of 1-cm depth was obtained from the GT during rotator cuff repair at two localizations, medial and lateral within tuberosity. Micro-vascularization was then analysed with an immunohistochemistry technique based on CD34 antigen tracking endothelial cells at two levels of depth for each sample (more and less than 5 mm). Epidemiologic and pathologic data were correlated with the rate of micro-vascularization measured. Results Median rate of GT’s micro-vascularization was 9.8 %, which ranged from 0.13 % to 33.4 %. This rate decreased with preoperative steroid injection (7.4 % vs 11.2) and with localization close to the cartilage of the humeral head (8.7 % vs 11.9 %). However, it remains almost homogenous along the depth’s core. Moreover, no significant correlation was found regarding age at surgery, gender, context of previous trauma, smoking habits, duration of symptoms, and specific data regarding the tendon tear. Conclusions This study highlighted the variability of GT’s micro-vascularization in case of rotator cuff tear. A greater rate was observed at the lateral part of the footprint, whereas medical history of steroid injection has a negative influence on micro-vascularization.
    International Orthopaedics 12/2014; 39(2). DOI:10.1007/s00264-014-2628-z · 2.02 Impact Factor


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May 21, 2014