Surgical results of the Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study

Departments of Neurological Surgery.
Journal of Neurosurgery (Impact Factor: 3.74). 10/2012; 118(1). DOI: 10.3171/2012.9.JNS12551
Source: PubMed

The Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study (COSS) was conducted to determine if superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass, when added to the best medical therapy, would reduce subsequent ipsilateral stroke in patients with complete internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion and an elevated oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) in the cerebral hemisphere distal to the occlusion. A recent publication documented the methodology of the COSS in detail and briefly outlined the major findings of the trial. The surgical results of the COSS are described in detail in this report.

The COSS was a prospective, parallel-group, 1:1 randomized, open-label, blinded-adjudication treatment trial. Participants, who had angiographically demonstrated complete occlusion of the ICA causing either a transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke within 120 days and hemodynamic cerebral ischemia indicated by an increased OEF measured by PET, were randomized to either surgical or medical treatment. One hundred ninety-five patients were randomized: 97 to the surgical group and 98 to the medical group. The surgical patients underwent an STA-MCA cortical branch anastomosis.

In the intention-to-treat analysis, the 2-year rates for the primary end point were 21% for the surgical group and 22.7% for the medical group (p = 0.78, log-rank test). Fourteen (15%) of the 93 patients who had undergone an arterial bypass had a primary end point ipsilateral hemispheric stroke in the 30-day postoperative period, 12 within 2 days after surgery. The STA-MCA arterial bypass patency rate was 98% at the 30-day postoperative visit and 96% at the last follow-up examination. The STA-MCA arterial bypass markedly improved, although it did not normalize, the level of elevated OEF in the symptomatic cerebral hemisphere. Five surgically treated and 1 nonsurgically treated patients in the surgical group had a primary end point ipsilateral hemispheric stroke after the 30-day postoperative period. No baseline characteristics or intraoperative variables revealed those who would experience a procedure-related stroke.

Despite excellent bypass graft patency and improved cerebral hemodynamics, STA-MCA anastomosis did not provide an overall benefit regarding ipsilateral 2-year stroke recurrence, mainly because of a much better than expected stroke recurrence rate (22.7%) in the medical group, but also because of a significant postoperative stroke rate (15%). Clinical trial registration no.: NCT00029146.

23 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The concept of conserved processes presents unique opportunities for using nonhuman animal models in biomedical research. However, the concept must be examined in the context that humans and nonhuman animals are evolved, complex, adaptive systems. Given that nonhuman animals are examples of living systems that are differently complex from humans, what does the existence of a conserved gene or process imply for inter-species extrapolation? Methods We surveyed the literature including philosophy of science, biological complexity, conserved processes, evolutionary biology, comparative medicine, anti-neoplastic agents, inhalational anesthetics, and drug development journals in order to determine the value of nonhuman animal models when studying conserved processes. Results Evolution through natural selection has employed components and processes both to produce the same outcomes among species but also to generate different functions and traits. Many genes and processes are conserved, but new combinations of these processes or different regulation of the genes involved in these processes have resulted in unique organisms. Further, there is a hierarchy of organization in complex living systems. At some levels, the components are simple systems that can be analyzed by mathematics or the physical sciences, while at other levels the system cannot be fully analyzed by reducing it to a physical system. The study of complex living systems must alternate between focusing on the parts and examining the intact whole organism while taking into account the connections between the two. Systems biology aims for this holism. We examined the actions of inhalational anesthetic agents and anti-neoplastic agents in order to address what the characteristics of complex living systems imply for inter-species extrapolation of traits and responses related to conserved processes. Conclusion We conclude that even the presence of conserved processes is insufficient for inter-species extrapolation when the trait or response being studied is located at higher levels of organization, is in a different module, or is influenced by other modules. However, when the examination of the conserved process occurs at the same level of organization or in the same module, and hence is subject to study solely by reductionism, then extrapolation is possible.
    Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 09/2012; 9(1):40. DOI:10.1186/1742-4682-9-40 · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Neurosurgery 10/2012; DOI:10.3171/2012.6.JNS121106 · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • Source
    World Neurosurgery 02/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.wneu.2013.02.023 · 2.88 Impact Factor
Show more


23 Reads