Effect of acute and sub chronic use of Bacopa monnieri on dopamine and serotonin turnover in mice whole brain

African journal of pharmacy and pharmacology (Impact Factor: 0.84). 10/2012; 6(39)(39):2767-2774.


Bacopa monnieri (BM) is a perennial herb, with a historic nootropic image and utility in ayurvedic system of medicine, for the management of various central nervous system disorders like, epilepsy, depression, memory deficit, etc. We investigated the effects of acute and sub chronic (one week) treatment of BM methanolic extract (Mt-ext BM) on dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) turn over in mice whole brain. Mt-ext BM was screened on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection for the quantification of BM major bioactive compound, Bacoside A, mainly comprising of Bacopasaponin C, Bacoside A3, and Bacopaside ll. For acute study, mice groups were administered single dose of 10, 20 or 30 mg/kg of Mt-ext BM orally, while in sub chronic study separate groups received single daily dose of 10, 20 or 30 mg/kg of Mt-ext BM orally for one week. Animals were killed 1 h after the dose by decapitation, and whole brains were excised and analyzed on HPLC coupled with electrochemical detector for changes in DA, 5-HT, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5 hydroxyindolacetic acid (5HIAA). Our results show that both acute and sub chronic oral administration of Mt-ext BM have no significant effect on DA and 5-HT turn over. The neurotransmitters data reflects safety of the BM in acute and sub chronic uses from DA and 5-HT modulation and subsequent pre disposition to neuropsychiatric problems. Although more studies are warranted to explore BM role in DA and 5-HT interplay in specified brain regions. Key words: Bacoside A, Bacopa monnieri, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT).

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    ABSTRACT: This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's nootropic utility in humans. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's and epilepsy. The current evidence suggests BM acts via the following mechanisms: antioxidant-neuroprotection (via redox and enzyme induction), acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, β-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, neurotransmitter modulation (ACh, 5-HT, DA) and receptor regulation. BM appears to exhibit low toxicity in model organisms and humans, however long-term studies of toxicity in humans have yet to be conducted. This review will integrate molecular neuroscience with behavioral research.
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