Clinical predictors of outcome following inflicted traumatic brain injury in children

From the Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology (A.C.), Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (T.R., S.L.W., K.L.M., L.J.M.)
The journal of trauma and acute care surgery 10/2012; 73(9 Suppl 3):S248-53. DOI: 10.1097/TA.0b013e31826b0062
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The study aimed to determine which acute injury variables were predictors of long-term functional outcome following inflicted traumatic brain injury (iTBI).
A retrospective case review of 35 children with iTBI was performed. After controlling for age at injury and time since injury, the generalized estimation equations method was used to identify acute injury variables that were significantly related to the Glasgow Outcome Scale scores at the initial follow-up assessments. When available, functional sequelae at these and longer-term follow-ups were also examined.
In bivariate generalized estimation equations analyses, a low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) eye component score, a low GCS motor component score, a low GCS verbal component score, need for neurosurgical intervention, seizures in the first week after injury, need for mechanical ventilation for more than 10 days, length of intensive care unit stay of more than 10 days, initial hyperglycemia, and neuroimaging findings of cerebral edema or loss of gray-white matter differentiation were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) related to having a poor outcome, as defined by their Glasgow Outcome Scale score at the initial follow-up. In multivariable analyses, considering the significant predictors while controlling for age at injury and time since injury, the presence of cerebral edema on neuroimaging (odds ratio, 27.21; 95% confidence interval, 4.40-168.22), and length of intensive care unit stay of more than 10 days (odds ratio, 21.57; 95% confidence interval, 3.09-150.48) were significantly related to having a poor outcome.
Early clinical data following iTBI help predict long-term functional outcome. Further research to support these findings may help delineate acutely after injury which children with iTBI are at risk for a poor prognosis and should be more closely followed up over time.
Prognostic study, level IV.

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